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Evaluation and Parameter Optimization of Monthly Net Long-Wave Radiation Climatology Methods in China

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Agricultural Meteorology, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
Atmospheric Science and Satellite Remote Sensing Key Laboratory of Anhui Province, Anhui Meteorological Institute, Hefei 230031, China
Anhui Agrometeorological Center, Hefei 230031, China
Anhui Climate Center, Hefei 230031, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Richard Müller
Atmosphere 2017, 8(6), 94;
Received: 4 March 2017 / Revised: 13 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 23 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Climatology and Meteorology)
PDF [2406 KB, uploaded 23 May 2017]


Based on surface radiation balance data and meteorological observations at 19 radiation stations in China from 1993 to 2012, we assessed the applicability of seven empirical formulas for the estimation of monthly surface net long-wave radiation (Rnl). We then established a revised method applicable to China by re-fitting the formula using new observational data. The iterative solution method and the multivariate regression analysis method with the minimum root mean square error (RMSE) were used as the objective functions in the revised method. Meanwhile, the accuracy of the CERES (Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System) estimated Rnl was also evaluated. Results show that monthly Rnl over China was underestimated by the seven formulas and the CERES data. The Tong Hongliang formula with lowest errors was the best among the seven formulas for estimating Rnl over China as a whole, followed by the Penman and the Deng Genyun formulas. The estimated Rnl based on the CERES data also showed relatively higher precision in accordance with the three formulas mentioned above. The FAO56-PM formula (Penman–Monteith formula recommended in the No. 56 report of the Food and Agriculture Organization) without calibration was not applicable to China due to its low accuracy. For individual stations, the Deng Genyun formula was the most accurate in the eastern plain area, while the Tong Hongliang formula was suitable for the plateau. Regional formulas were established based on the geographical distribution of water vapor pressure and elevation over China. The revised national and regional formulas were more accurate than the seven original formulas and the CERES data. Furthermore, the regional formulas produced smaller errors than the national formula at most of the stations. The regional formulas were clearly more accurate than the Deng Genyun formula at stations in Northwestern China and on the Tibetan Plateau. They were also more accurate than the Tong Hongliang formula at the stations located in the eastern area. Therefore, the regional formulas developed in this study are recommended as the standard climatology formulas to calculate monthly Rnl over China. View Full-Text
Keywords: net long-wave radiation; evaluation; optimization; method; China net long-wave radiation; evaluation; optimization; method; China

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Cao, W.; Duan, C.; Shen, S.; Yao, Y. Evaluation and Parameter Optimization of Monthly Net Long-Wave Radiation Climatology Methods in China. Atmosphere 2017, 8, 94.

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