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Article

Evidence of a Diurnal Cycle in Precipitation over the Southern Ocean as Observed at Macquarie Island

1
School of Earth, Atmosphere and Environment, Monash University, Melbourne 3800, Australia
2
School of Earth Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne 3053, Australia
3
Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Climate Extremes, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020181
Received: 19 January 2020 / Revised: 4 February 2020 / Accepted: 5 February 2020 / Published: 9 February 2020
Due to a lack of observations, relatively large discrepancies exist between precipitation products over the Southern Ocean. In this manuscript, surface hourly precipitation observations from Macquarie Island (54.62 ° S, 158.85 ° E) are analysed (1998–2016) to reveal a diurnal cycle. The precipitation rate is at a maximum during night/early morning and a minimum in the afternoon at Macquarie Island station. Seasonally, the diurnal cycle is strongest in summer and negligible over winter. Such a cycle is consistent with precipitation arising from marine boundary layer clouds, suggesting that such clouds are making a substantial contribution to total precipitation over Macquarie Island and the Southern Ocean. Using twice daily upper air soundings (1995–2011), lower troposphere stability parameters show a stronger inversion at night, again consistent with precipitation arising from marine boundary layer clouds. The ERA-Interim precipitation is dominated by a 12 hourly cycle, year around, which is likely to be a consequence of the twice-daily initialisation. The implication of a diurnal cycle in boundary layer clouds over the Southern Ocean to derived A-Train satellite precipitation products is also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: precipitation; diurnal cycle; Southern Ocean; Macquarie Island; marine boundary layer clouds precipitation; diurnal cycle; Southern Ocean; Macquarie Island; marine boundary layer clouds
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lang, F.; Huang, Y.; Siems, S.T.; Manton, M.J. Evidence of a Diurnal Cycle in Precipitation over the Southern Ocean as Observed at Macquarie Island. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 181. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020181

AMA Style

Lang F, Huang Y, Siems ST, Manton MJ. Evidence of a Diurnal Cycle in Precipitation over the Southern Ocean as Observed at Macquarie Island. Atmosphere. 2020; 11(2):181. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020181

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lang, Francisco; Huang, Yi; Siems, Steven T.; Manton, Michael J. 2020. "Evidence of a Diurnal Cycle in Precipitation over the Southern Ocean as Observed at Macquarie Island" Atmosphere 11, no. 2: 181. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020181

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