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Characteristics and Sources of Water-Soluble Ions in PM2.5 in the Sichuan Basin, China

1
School of Safety and Environmental Engineering, Capital University of Economics and Business, NO.121 Zhangjialukou Rd, Fengtai District, Beijing 100070, China
2
College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Peking University, NO.5 Yiheyuan Rd, Haidian District, Beijing 100871, China
3
Sichuan Provincial Environmental Monitoring Center, NO.88 3rd East Guanghua Rd, Qingyang Districat, Chengdu 610041, China
4
Chongqing Environmental Monitoring Center, NO.252 Qishan Rd, Yubei District, Chongqing 401147, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(2), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020078
Received: 19 January 2019 / Revised: 4 February 2019 / Accepted: 7 February 2019 / Published: 15 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Aerosol Regional Monitoring)
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Abstract

To track the particulate pollution in Sichuan Basin, sample filters were collected in three urban sites. Characteristics of water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) were explored and their sources were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). During 2012–2013, the PM2.5 concentrations were 86.7 ± 49.7 μg m−3 in Chengdu (CD), 78.6 ± 36.8 μg m−3 in Neijiang (NJ), and 71.7 ± 36.9 μg m−3 in Chongqing (CQ), respectively. WSIIs contributed about 50% to PM2.5, and 90% of them were secondary inorganic ions. NH4+ and NO3 roughly followed the seasonal pattern of PM2.5 variations, whereas the highest levels of SO42− appeared in summer and autumn. PM2.5 samples were most acidic in autumn and winter, but were alkaline in spring. The aerosol acidity increased with the increasing level of anion equivalents. SO42− primarily existed in the form of (NH4)2SO4. Full neutralization of NH4+ to NO3 was only observed in low levels of SO42− + NO3, and NO3 existed in various forms. SO42− and NO3 were formed mainly through homogeneous reactions, and there was the existence of heterogeneous reactions under high relative humidity. The main identified sources of WSIIs included coal combustion, biomass burning, and construction dust. View Full-Text
Keywords: PM2.5; water-soluble ions; sources; Sichuan Basin PM2.5; water-soluble ions; sources; Sichuan Basin
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Chen, Y.; Xie, S.-D.; Luo, B.; Zhai, C. Characteristics and Sources of Water-Soluble Ions in PM2.5 in the Sichuan Basin, China. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 78.

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