We examined the diurnal cycle of the rainfall in a coastal tropical mountainous region in central Veracruz State, Mexico (18°–21° N, 95.5°–98.5° W), featuring a striking topographic gradient running from sea level at the Gulf of Mexico coast to 5000 m above sea level (m.a.s.l.) in less than 100 km horizontal distance. During the summer, this unique location leads to regular the interaction between the easterly moisture inflow and the mountainous barrier. Over the complex terrain, forced ascent leads the occurrence of maximum rainfall during the afternoon (16–19 local time, LT ≈ 1½ hours ahead of solar time in summer), first along the slope and later over the coast. Along the coastal plain, the precipitation continues until the early morning consistent with there being convergence between land breezes and the trade winds. Observations obtained during a measurement campaign from 28 June to 3 July 2015, indicate that during the early evening downslope winds move against easterly flow, likely due to katabatic outflows previously observed over the region. These features are confirmed using spatial (0.88°) and temporal (30 min) resolution CMORPH rainfall estimates, since we observed evening episodes initiating along the slope during the afternoon (14–17 LT) moving later towards the coast.
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