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Open AccessArticle

Release of Highly Active Ice Nucleating Biological Particles Associated with Rain

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Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1, Hiyoshi Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522, Japan
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College of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan
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Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan
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Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(10), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10100605
Received: 11 September 2019 / Revised: 1 October 2019 / Accepted: 3 October 2019 / Published: 8 October 2019
Biological particles may play an important role in the climate system by efficiently acting as ice nucleating particles (INPs) at a higher temperature range (e.g., above −20 °C where representative INPs such as mineral dust remain inactive), but there is an obvious lack of direct evidence that these particles serve in this manner. Here, we collected ambient particles under different weather conditions for identifying INPs that are active above −22 °C. The abundance of such efficient INPs increased during or following rainfall events. The extensive characterization of individual particles by three different analyses (particle morphology and composition, heat sensitivity of ice nucleation activities, and biological fingerprinting by DNA staining) revealed that efficient INPs have distinctly biological characteristics, which differ significantly from more abundant, representative, and relatively less active INPs, such as mineral dust. Additionally, by combining the heat-sensitivity experiments and DNA staining techniques, efficient INPs were found to contain heat-sensitive biomaterials and biological cells. Our findings provide direct evidence that biological particles are preferentially released into the atmosphere during rainfall events and act as important atmospheric INPs at higher temperature ranges (warmer than −22 °C), where typical INPs remain inactive. View Full-Text
Keywords: ice nucleating particle; water cycle; biological particle; climate dynamics; ice nucleation ice nucleating particle; water cycle; biological particle; climate dynamics; ice nucleation
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Iwata, A.; Imura, M.; Hama, M.; Maki, T.; Tsuchiya, N.; Kunihisa, R.; Matsuki, A. Release of Highly Active Ice Nucleating Biological Particles Associated with Rain. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 605.

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