Ageing is a complex trait controlled by genes and the environment. The highly conserved mechanistic target of rapamycin signalling pathway (mTOR) is a major regulator of lifespan in all eukaryotes and is thought to be mediating some of the effects of dietary restriction. mTOR is a rheostat of energy sensing diverse inputs such as amino acids, oxygen, hormones, and stress and regulates lifespan by tuning cellular functions such as gene expression, ribosome biogenesis, proteostasis, and mitochondrial metabolism. Deregulation of the mTOR signalling pathway is implicated in multiple age-related diseases such as cancer, neurodegeneration, and auto-immunity. In this review, we briefly summarise some of the workings of mTOR in lifespan and ageing through the processes of transcription, translation, autophagy, and metabolism. A good understanding of the pathway’s outputs and connectivity is paramount towards our ability for genetic and pharmacological interventions for healthy ageing and amelioration of age-related disease.
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