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Hypothesis

Genetic Hypothesis and Pharmacogenetics Side of Renin-Angiotensin-System in COVID-19

by 1,2,3,* and 1
1
Department of Morphology, Surgery and Experimental Medicine, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
2
Centre Hemostasis & Thrombosis, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
3
University Centre for Studies on Gender Medicine, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2020, 11(9), 1044; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11091044
Received: 20 July 2020 / Revised: 30 August 2020 / Accepted: 2 September 2020 / Published: 3 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Human Genomics and Genetic Diseases)
The importance of host genetics and demography in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a crucial aspect of infection, prognosis and associated case fatality rate. Individual genetic landscapes can contribute to understand Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) burden and can give information on how to fight virus spreading and the associated severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The spread and pathogenicity of the virus have become pandemic on specific geographic areas and ethnicities. Interestingly, SARS-CoV-2 firstly emerged in East Asia and next in Europe, where it has caused higher morbidity and mortality. This is a peculiar feature of SARS-CoV-2, different from past global viral infections (i.e., SARS-1 or MERS); it shares with the previous pandemics strong age- and sex-dependent gaps in the disease outcome. The observation that the severest COVID-19 patients are more likely to have a history of hypertension, diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease and receive Renin-Angiotensin-System (RAS) inhibitor treatment raised the hypothesis that RAS-unbalancing may have a crucial role. Accordingly, we recently published a genetic hypothesis on the role of RAS-pathway genes (ACE1, rs4646994, rs1799752, rs4340, rs13447447; and ACE2, rs2285666, rs1978124, rs714205) and ABO-locus (rs495828, rs8176746) in COVID-19 prognosis, suspecting inherited genetic predispositions to be predictive of COVID-19 severity. In addition, recently, Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) found COVID-19-association signals at locus 3p21.31 (rs11385942) comprising the solute carrier SLC6A20 (Na+ and Cl- coupled transporter family) and at locus 9q34.2 (rs657152) coincident with ABO-blood group (rs8176747, rs41302905, rs8176719), and interestingly, both loci are associated to RAS-pathway. Finally, ACE1 and ACE2 haplotypes seem to provide plausible explanations for why SARS-CoV-2 have affected more heavily some ethnic groups, namely people with European ancestry, than Asians. View Full-Text
Keywords: ACE1; ACE2; RAS-pathway; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; prognostic markers; gender-gap ACE1; ACE2; RAS-pathway; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; prognostic markers; gender-gap
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gemmati, D.; Tisato, V. Genetic Hypothesis and Pharmacogenetics Side of Renin-Angiotensin-System in COVID-19. Genes 2020, 11, 1044. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11091044

AMA Style

Gemmati D, Tisato V. Genetic Hypothesis and Pharmacogenetics Side of Renin-Angiotensin-System in COVID-19. Genes. 2020; 11(9):1044. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11091044

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gemmati, Donato, and Veronica Tisato. 2020. "Genetic Hypothesis and Pharmacogenetics Side of Renin-Angiotensin-System in COVID-19" Genes 11, no. 9: 1044. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11091044

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