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Article

Sexual Difference in the Optimum Environmental Conditions for Growth and Maturation of the Brown Alga Undaria pinnatifida in the Gametophyte Stage

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Bio-resources Business Development Division, Riken Food Co., Ltd., Miyagi 985-0844, Japan
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Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198, Japan
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Faculty of Fisheries, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0056, Japan
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Connected Solutions Company, Panasonic Co., Tokyo 104-0061, Japan
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SiM24 Co., Ltd., Osaka 540-6104, Japan
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Future Center Initiative, The University of Tokyo, Saitama 277-0871, Japan
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Faculty of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Fukui Prefectural University, Fukui 910-1195, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2020, 11(8), 944; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11080944
Received: 1 July 2020 / Revised: 4 August 2020 / Accepted: 14 August 2020 / Published: 16 August 2020
Undaria pinnatifida is an annual brown kelp growing naturally in coastal areas as a major primary producer in temperate regions and is cultivated on an industrial scale. Kelps have a heteromorphic life cycle characterized by a macroscopic sporophyte and microscopic sexual gametophytes. The sex-dependent effects of different environmental factors on the growth and maturation characteristics of the gametophyte stage were investigated using response surface methodology. Gametophytes were taken from three sites in Japan: Iwate Prefecture, Tokushima Prefecture, and Kagoshima Prefecture in order to confirm the sexual differences in three independent lines. Optimum temperature and light intensity were higher for males (20.7–20.9 °C and 28.6–33.7 µmol m−2 s−1, respectively) than females (16.5–19.8 °C and 26.9–32.5 µmol m−2 s−1), and maturity progressed more quickly in males than females. Optimum wavelengths of light for growth and maturation of the gametophytes were observed for both blue (400–500 nm, λmax 453 nm) and green (500–600 nm; λmax 525 nm) lights and were sex-independent. These characteristics were consistent among the three regional lines. Slower growth optima and progress of maturation could be important for female gametophytes to restrict fertilization and sporophyte germination to the lower water temperatures of autumn and winter, and suggest that the female gametophyte may be more sensitive to temperature than the male. The sexual differences in sensitivity to environmental factors improved the synchronicity of sporeling production. View Full-Text
Keywords: sexual difference; Undaria pinnatifida; gametophyte; optimum conditions; growth; maturation; fertilization; response surface methodology sexual difference; Undaria pinnatifida; gametophyte; optimum conditions; growth; maturation; fertilization; response surface methodology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sato, Y.; Endo, H.; Oikawa, H.; Kanematsu, K.; Naka, H.; Mogamiya, M.; Kawano, S.; Kazama, Y. Sexual Difference in the Optimum Environmental Conditions for Growth and Maturation of the Brown Alga Undaria pinnatifida in the Gametophyte Stage. Genes 2020, 11, 944. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11080944

AMA Style

Sato Y, Endo H, Oikawa H, Kanematsu K, Naka H, Mogamiya M, Kawano S, Kazama Y. Sexual Difference in the Optimum Environmental Conditions for Growth and Maturation of the Brown Alga Undaria pinnatifida in the Gametophyte Stage. Genes. 2020; 11(8):944. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11080944

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sato, Yoichi, Hikaru Endo, Hiroki Oikawa, Koichi Kanematsu, Hiroyuki Naka, Miho Mogamiya, Shigeyuki Kawano, and Yusuke Kazama. 2020. "Sexual Difference in the Optimum Environmental Conditions for Growth and Maturation of the Brown Alga Undaria pinnatifida in the Gametophyte Stage" Genes 11, no. 8: 944. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11080944

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