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Aspects of Multicellularity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast: A Review of Evolutionary and Physiological Mechanisms

Institute of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Kraków, Poland
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Genes 2020, 11(6), 690; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11060690
Received: 10 June 2020 / Revised: 22 June 2020 / Accepted: 22 June 2020 / Published: 24 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Aspects of Yeast: Cell Biology, Ecology and Biotechnology)
The evolutionary transition from single-celled to multicellular growth is a classic and intriguing problem in biology. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a useful model to study questions regarding cell aggregation, heterogeneity and cooperation. In this review, we discuss scenarios of group formation and how this promotes facultative multicellularity in S. cerevisiae. We first describe proximate mechanisms leading to aggregation. These mechanisms include staying together and coming together, and can lead to group heterogeneity. Heterogeneity is promoted by nutrient limitation, structured environments and aging. We then characterize the evolutionary benefits and costs of facultative multicellularity in yeast. We summarize current knowledge and focus on the newest state-of-the-art discoveries that will fuel future research programmes aiming to understand facultative microbial multicellularity. View Full-Text
Keywords: facultative multicellularity; cell differentiation; cell specialization; cooperation; starvation; spatial structure; aging; metabolic cooperation; adaptation; evolution; AMN1 gene; yeast exometabolome facultative multicellularity; cell differentiation; cell specialization; cooperation; starvation; spatial structure; aging; metabolic cooperation; adaptation; evolution; AMN1 gene; yeast exometabolome
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Opalek, M.; Wloch-Salamon, D. Aspects of Multicellularity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast: A Review of Evolutionary and Physiological Mechanisms. Genes 2020, 11, 690.

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