Next Article in Journal
Animal Models and Their Contribution to Our Understanding of the Relationship Between Environments, Epigenetic Modifications, and Behavior
Previous Article in Journal
Network Analyses of Integrated Differentially Expressed Genes in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma to Identify Characteristic Genes
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Genes 2019, 10(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10010046

Genome-Wide Identification and Transcriptional Expression of the PAL Gene Family in Common Walnut (Juglans Regia L.)

1
Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Northwest University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710069, China
2
School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xianyang Normal University, Xianyang 712000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 November 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics and Genomics)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2420 KB, uploaded 28 January 2019]   |  

Abstract

Juglans regia L. is an economically important crop cultivated worldwide for its high quality and quantity of wood and nuts. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is the first enzyme in the phenylpropanoid pathway that plays a critical role in plant growth, development, and adaptation, but there have been few reports of the PAL gene family in common walnut. Here, we report a genome-wide study of J. regia PAL genes and analyze their phylogeny, duplication, microRNA, and transcriptional expression. A total of 12 PAL genes were identified in the common walnut and clustered into two subfamilies based on phylogenetic analysis. These common walnut PALs are distributed on eight different pseudo-chromosomes. Seven of the 12 PALs (JrPAL2-3, JrPAL4-2, JrPAL2-1, JrPAL4-1, JrPAL8, JrPAL9, and JrPAL6) were specific found in J. regia, and JrPAL3, JrPAL5, JrPAL1-2, JrPAL7, and JrPAL2-2 were found to be closely associated with the woody plant Populus trichocarpa. Additionally, the expression patterns of JrPAL3, JrPAL7, JrPAL9, and JrPAL2-1 showed that they had high expression in female and male flowers. The miRNA ath-miR830-5p regulates two genes, JrPAL5 and JrPAL1, such that they have low expression in the male and female flowers of the common walnut. Our research provides useful information for further research into the function of PAL genes in common walnut and Juglans. View Full-Text
Keywords: common walnut; phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL); evolution; phylogenetic; expression profiling; female and male flowers common walnut; phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL); evolution; phylogenetic; expression profiling; female and male flowers
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Yan, F.; Li, H.; Zhao, P. Genome-Wide Identification and Transcriptional Expression of the PAL Gene Family in Common Walnut (Juglans Regia L.). Genes 2019, 10, 46.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Genes EISSN 2073-4425 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top