Our common knowledge on oxidative stress has evolved substantially over the years, being focused mostly on the fundamental chemical reactions and the most relevant chemical species involved in human pathophysiology of oxidative stress-associated diseases. Thus, reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) were identified as key players in initiating, mediating, and regulating the cellular and biochemical complexity of oxidative stress either as physiological (acting pro-hormetic) or as pathogenic (causing destructive vicious circles) processes. The papers published in this particular Special Issue of Cells
show an impressive range on the pathophysiological relevance of ROS and RNS, including the relevance of second messengers of free radicals like 4-hydroxynonenal, allowing us to assume that the future will reveal even more detailed mechanisms of their positive and negative effects that might improve the monitoring of major modern diseases, and aid the development of advanced integrative biomedical treatments.
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