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Open AccessReview

Iron: An Essential Element of Cancer Metabolism

1
Molecular Biotechnology Center, Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Health Sciences, University of Torino, 10126 Turin, Italy
2
Department of Clinical and Biological Science, University of Turin, AOU San Luigi Gonzaga, 10043 Orbassano, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2020, 9(12), 2591; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9122591
Received: 6 November 2020 / Revised: 24 November 2020 / Accepted: 30 November 2020 / Published: 3 December 2020
Cancer cells undergo considerable metabolic changes to foster uncontrolled proliferation in a hostile environment characterized by nutrient deprivation, poor vascularization and immune infiltration. While metabolic reprogramming has been recognized as a hallmark of cancer, the role of micronutrients in shaping these adaptations remains scarcely investigated. In particular, the broad electron-transferring abilities of iron make it a versatile cofactor that is involved in a myriad of biochemical reactions vital to cellular homeostasis, including cell respiration and DNA replication. In cancer patients, systemic iron metabolism is commonly altered. Moreover, cancer cells deploy diverse mechanisms to increase iron bioavailability to fuel tumor growth. Although iron itself can readily participate in redox reactions enabling vital processes, its reactivity also gives rise to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hence, cancer cells further rely on antioxidant mechanisms to withstand such stress. The present review provides an overview of the common alterations of iron metabolism occurring in cancer and the mechanisms through which iron promotes tumor growth. View Full-Text
Keywords: iron; cancer metabolism; mitochondria; iron-sulfur cluster iron; cancer metabolism; mitochondria; iron-sulfur cluster
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hsu, M.Y.; Mina, E.; Roetto, A.; Porporato, P.E. Iron: An Essential Element of Cancer Metabolism. Cells 2020, 9, 2591. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9122591

AMA Style

Hsu MY, Mina E, Roetto A, Porporato PE. Iron: An Essential Element of Cancer Metabolism. Cells. 2020; 9(12):2591. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9122591

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hsu, Myriam Y.; Mina, Erica; Roetto, Antonella; Porporato, Paolo E. 2020. "Iron: An Essential Element of Cancer Metabolism" Cells 9, no. 12: 2591. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9122591

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