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Free-Water Imaging in White and Gray Matter in Parkinson’s Disease

1
Department of Radiology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan
2
Department of Neurology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan
3
Department of Radiological Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Graduate School of Human Health Sciences, Tokyo 116-8551, Japan
4
Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, Department of Psychiatry, The University of Melbourne & Melbourne Health, Parkville, VIC 3053, Australia
5
Melbourne School of Engineering, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia
6
Department of Radiology, The University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
7
Department of Radiology, Toho University Omori Medical Center, Tokyo 143-8541, Japan
8
Department of Neurosurgery, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan
9
Florey Institute for Neuroscience and Mental Health, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2019, 8(8), 839; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8080839
Received: 28 June 2019 / Revised: 29 July 2019 / Accepted: 3 August 2019 / Published: 5 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Key Signalling Molecules in Aging and Neurodegeneration)
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Abstract

This study aimed to discriminate between neuroinflammation and neuronal degeneration in the white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) using free-water (FW) imaging. Analysis using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) of 20 patients with PD and 20 healthy individuals revealed changes in FW imaging indices (i.e., reduced FW-corrected fractional anisotropy (FAT), increased FW-corrected mean, axial, and radial diffusivities (MDT, ADT, and RDT, respectively) and fractional volume of FW (FW) in somewhat more specific WM areas compared with the changes of DTI indices. The region-of-interest (ROI) analysis further supported these findings, whereby those with PD showed significantly lower FAT and higher MDT, ADT, and RDT (indices of neuronal degeneration) in anterior WM areas as well as higher FW (index of neuroinflammation) in posterior WM areas compared with the controls. Results of GM-based spatial statistics (GBSS) analysis revealed that patients with PD had significantly higher MDT, ADT, and FW than the controls, whereas ROI analysis showed significantly increased MDT and FW and a trend toward increased ADT in GM areas, corresponding to Braak stage IV. These findings support the hypothesis that neuroinflammation precedes neuronal degeneration in PD, whereas WM microstructural alterations precede changes in GM. View Full-Text
Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; neuronal degeneration; neuroinflammation; diffusion tensor imaging; free-water imaging; tract-based spatial statistics; gray matter-based spatial statistics Parkinson’s disease; neuronal degeneration; neuroinflammation; diffusion tensor imaging; free-water imaging; tract-based spatial statistics; gray matter-based spatial statistics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Andica, C.; Kamagata, K.; Hatano, T.; Saito, A.; Uchida, W.; Ogawa, T.; Takeshige-Amano, H.; Zalesky, A.; Wada, A.; Suzuki, M.; Hagiwara, A.; Irie, R.; Hori, M.; Kumamaru, K.K.; Oyama, G.; Shimo, Y.; Umemura, A.; Pantelis, C.; Hattori, N.; Aoki, S. Free-Water Imaging in White and Gray Matter in Parkinson’s Disease. Cells 2019, 8, 839.

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