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Cells 2019, 8(2), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8020089

Metabolic Reprogramming in Breast Cancer and Its Therapeutic Implications

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Center for Genetics & Pharmacology, Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA
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Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 20 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 26 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitochondrial Metabolic Reprogramming and Nuclear Crosstalk in Cancer)
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Abstract

Current standard-of-care (SOC) therapy for breast cancer includes targeted therapies such as endocrine therapy for estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) positive; anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies for human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-enriched; and general chemotherapy for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtypes. These therapies frequently fail due to acquired or inherent resistance. Altered metabolism has been recognized as one of the major mechanisms underlying therapeutic resistance. There are several cues that dictate metabolic reprogramming that also account for the tumors’ metabolic plasticity. For metabolic therapy to be efficacious there is a need to understand the metabolic underpinnings of the different subtypes of breast cancer as well as the role the SOC treatments play in targeting the metabolic phenotype. Understanding the mechanism will allow us to identify potential therapeutic vulnerabilities. There are some very interesting questions being tackled by researchers today as they pertain to altered metabolism in breast cancer. What are the metabolic differences between the different subtypes of breast cancer? Do cancer cells have a metabolic pathway preference based on the site and stage of metastasis? How do the cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic cues dictate the metabolic phenotype? How do the nucleus and mitochondria coordinately regulate metabolism? How does sensitivity or resistance to SOC affect metabolic reprogramming and vice-versa? This review addresses these issues along with the latest updates in the field of breast cancer metabolism. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast cancer; metabolism; estrogen receptors; p53; standard-of-care; resistance mechanisms; molecular subtypes; tumor microenvironment; mitochondria; mito-nuclear crosstalk; metabolism in metastatic cascade; metabolic reprogramming; precision medicine breast cancer; metabolism; estrogen receptors; p53; standard-of-care; resistance mechanisms; molecular subtypes; tumor microenvironment; mitochondria; mito-nuclear crosstalk; metabolism in metastatic cascade; metabolic reprogramming; precision medicine
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Gandhi, N.; Das, G.M. Metabolic Reprogramming in Breast Cancer and Its Therapeutic Implications. Cells 2019, 8, 89.

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