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Article

Cycloastragenol, a Triterpenoid Saponin, Regulates Oxidative Stress, Neurotrophic Dysfunctions, Neuroinflammation and Apoptotic Cell Death in Neurodegenerative Conditions

1
Division of Life Science and Applied Life Science (BK21 Four), College of Natural Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Korea
2
Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience (MHeNs), Maastricht University, 6211 LK Maastricht, The Netherlands
3
Alz-Dementia Korea Co., Jinju 52828, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Maria Antonietta Panaro
Cells 2021, 10(10), 2719; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10102719
Received: 8 August 2021 / Revised: 7 October 2021 / Accepted: 8 October 2021 / Published: 11 October 2021
Here, we have unveiled the effects of cycloastragenol against Aβ (Amyloid-beta)-induced oxidative stress, neurogenic dysfunction, activated mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, and mitochondrial apoptosis in an Aβ-induced mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The Aβ-induced mouse model was developed by the stereotaxic injection of amyloid-beta (5 μg/mouse/intracerebroventricular), and cycloastragenol was given at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day/p.o for 6 weeks daily. For the biochemical analysis, we used immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Our findings showed that the injection of Aβ elevated oxidative stress and reduced the expression of neurogenic markers, as shown by the reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the phosphorylation of its specific receptor tropomyosin receptor kinase B (p-TrKB). In addition, there was a marked reduction in the expression of NeuN (neuronal nuclear protein) in the Aβ-injected mice brains (cortex and hippocampus). Interestingly, the expression of Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2), HO-1 (heme oxygenase-1), p-TrKB, BDNF, and NeuN was markedly enhanced in the Aβ + Cycloastragenol co-treated mice brains. We have also evaluated the expressions of MAP kinases such as phospho c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), p-38, and phospho-extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK1/2) in the experimental groups, which suggested that the expression of p-JNK, p-P-38, and p-Erk were significantly upregulated in the Aβ-injected mice brains; interestingly, these markers were downregulated in the Aβ + Cycloastragenol co-treated mice brains. We also checked the expression of activated microglia and inflammatory cytokines, which showed that cycloastragenol reduced the activated microglia and inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, we evaluated the effects of cycloastragenol against mitochondrial apoptosis and memory dysfunctions in the experimental groups. The findings showed significant regulatory effects against apoptosis and memory dysfunction as revealed by the Morris water maze (MWM) test. Collectively, the findings suggested that cycloastragenol regulates oxidative stress, neurotrophic processes, neuroinflammation, apoptotic cell death, and memory impairment in the mouse model of AD. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; Amyloid-beta; neurogenesis; neuroprotection; neurodegeneration Alzheimer’s disease; Amyloid-beta; neurogenesis; neuroprotection; neurodegeneration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ikram, M.; Jo, M.H.; Choe, K.; Khan, A.; Ahmad, S.; Saeed, K.; Kim, M.W.; Kim, M.O. Cycloastragenol, a Triterpenoid Saponin, Regulates Oxidative Stress, Neurotrophic Dysfunctions, Neuroinflammation and Apoptotic Cell Death in Neurodegenerative Conditions. Cells 2021, 10, 2719. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10102719

AMA Style

Ikram M, Jo MH, Choe K, Khan A, Ahmad S, Saeed K, Kim MW, Kim MO. Cycloastragenol, a Triterpenoid Saponin, Regulates Oxidative Stress, Neurotrophic Dysfunctions, Neuroinflammation and Apoptotic Cell Death in Neurodegenerative Conditions. Cells. 2021; 10(10):2719. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10102719

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ikram, Muhammad, Myeung Hoon Jo, Kyonghwan Choe, Amjad Khan, Sareer Ahmad, Kamran Saeed, Min Woo Kim, and Myeong Ok Kim. 2021. "Cycloastragenol, a Triterpenoid Saponin, Regulates Oxidative Stress, Neurotrophic Dysfunctions, Neuroinflammation and Apoptotic Cell Death in Neurodegenerative Conditions" Cells 10, no. 10: 2719. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10102719

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