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Biological Significance of Tumor Heterogeneity in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Malignant Tumor Epigenetics and Gene Regulation, Medical Research Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510120, China
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Cancers 2019, 11(8), 1156; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11081156
Received: 15 July 2019 / Revised: 6 August 2019 / Accepted: 7 August 2019 / Published: 12 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metastatic Progression and Tumour Heterogeneity)
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Abstract

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a common and aggressive malignancy, with hitherto dismal clinical outcome. Genomic analyses of patient samples reveal a complex heterogeneous landscape for ESCC, which presents in both intertumor and intratumor forms, manifests at both genomic and epigenomic levels, and contributes significantly to tumor evolution, drug resistance, and metastasis. Here, we review the important molecular characteristics underlying ESCC heterogeneity, with an emphasis on genomic aberrations and their functional contribution to cancer evolutionary trajectories. We further discuss how novel experimental tools, including single-cell sequencing and three-dimensional organoids, may advance our understanding of tumor heterogeneity. Lastly, we suggest that deciphering the mechanisms governing tumor heterogeneity holds the potential to developing precision therapeutics for ESCC patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; tumor heterogeneity; tumor evolution; precision medicine esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; tumor heterogeneity; tumor evolution; precision medicine
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Lin, L.; Lin, D.-C. Biological Significance of Tumor Heterogeneity in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Cancers 2019, 11, 1156.

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