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Review

Impact of Tumor and Immunological Heterogeneity on the Anti-Cancer Immune Response

1
Department of Clinical Pathology, Victorian Comprehensive Cancer Centre, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia
2
Centre for Cancer Research, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia
3
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2019, 11(9), 1217; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11091217
Received: 17 July 2019 / Revised: 15 August 2019 / Accepted: 16 August 2019 / Published: 21 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metastatic Progression and Tumour Heterogeneity)
Metastatic tumors are the primary cause of cancer-related mortality. In recent years, interest in the immunologic control of malignancy has helped establish escape from immunosurveillance as a critical requirement for incipient metastases. Our improved understanding of the immune system’s interactions with cancer cells has led to major therapeutic advances but has also unraveled a previously unsuspected level of complexity. This review will discuss the vast spatial and functional heterogeneity in the tumor-infiltrating immune system, with particular focus on natural killer (NK) cells, as well as the impact of tumor cell-specific factors, such as secretome composition, receptor–ligand repertoire, and neoantigen diversity, which can further drive immunological heterogeneity. We emphasize how tumor and immunological heterogeneity may undermine the efficacy of T-cell directed immunotherapies and explore the potential of NK cells to be harnessed to circumvent these limitations. View Full-Text
Keywords: tumor heterogeneity; natural killer cells; tumor mutation burden; immunotherapy tumor heterogeneity; natural killer cells; tumor mutation burden; immunotherapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shembrey, C.; Huntington, N.D.; Hollande, F. Impact of Tumor and Immunological Heterogeneity on the Anti-Cancer Immune Response. Cancers 2019, 11, 1217. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11091217

AMA Style

Shembrey C, Huntington ND, Hollande F. Impact of Tumor and Immunological Heterogeneity on the Anti-Cancer Immune Response. Cancers. 2019; 11(9):1217. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11091217

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shembrey, Carolyn, Nicholas D. Huntington, and Frédéric Hollande. 2019. "Impact of Tumor and Immunological Heterogeneity on the Anti-Cancer Immune Response" Cancers 11, no. 9: 1217. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11091217

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