Next Article in Journal
A Systematic Review of Phase II Targeted Therapy Clinical Trials in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer
Next Article in Special Issue
Functional Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) Are Expressed by a Majority of Primary Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells and Inducibility of the TLR Signaling Pathway Is Associated with a More Favorable Phenotype
Previous Article in Journal
Gene Expression Comparison between the Lymph Node-Positive and -Negative Reveals a Peculiar Immune Microenvironment Signature and a Theranostic Role for WNT Targeting in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: A Pilot Study
Previous Article in Special Issue
NF-κB/Rel Transcription Factors in Pancreatic Cancer: Focusing on RelA, c-Rel, and RelB
Article Menu
Issue 7 (July) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

The Unsolved Puzzle of c-Rel in B Cell Lymphoma

1
Institute of Experimental Hematology, School of Medicine, Technical University Munich, Ismaninger Straße 22, 81675 Munich, Germany
2
German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) and German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Merck KGaA, Frankfurter Str. 250, 64293 Darmstadt, Germany.
Cancers 2019, 11(7), 941; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11070941
Received: 23 May 2019 / Revised: 28 June 2019 / Accepted: 29 June 2019 / Published: 4 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NF-kappaB signalling pathway)
  |  
PDF [879 KB, uploaded 4 July 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Aberrant constitutive activation of Rel/NF-κB transcription factors is a hallmark of numerous cancers. Of the five Rel family members, c-Rel has the strongest direct links to tumorigenesis. c-Rel is the only member that can malignantly transform lymphoid cells in vitro. Furthermore, c-Rel is implicated in human B cell lymphoma through the frequent occurrence of REL gene locus gains and amplifications. In normal physiology, high c-Rel expression predominates in the hematopoietic lineage and a diverse range of stimuli can trigger enhanced expression and activation of c-Rel. Both expression and activation of c-Rel are tightly regulated on multiple levels, indicating the necessity to keep its functions under control. In this review we meta-analyze and integrate studies reporting gene locus aberrations to provide an overview on the frequency of REL gains in human B cell lymphoma subtypes, namely follicular lymphoma, diffuse large B cell lymphoma, primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma, and classical Hodgkin lymphoma. We also summarize current knowledge on c-Rel expression and protein localization in these human B cell lymphomas and discuss the co-amplification of BCL11A with REL. In addition, we highlight and illustrate key pathways of c-Rel activation and regulation with a specific focus on B cell biology. View Full-Text
Keywords: c-Rel; NF-κB; B cells; REL gene locus amplification; lymphoma; FL; DLBCL; PMBCL; cHL c-Rel; NF-κB; B cells; REL gene locus amplification; lymphoma; FL; DLBCL; PMBCL; cHL
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kober-Hasslacher, M.; Schmidt-Supprian, M. The Unsolved Puzzle of c-Rel in B Cell Lymphoma. Cancers 2019, 11, 941.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Cancers EISSN 2072-6694 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top