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Cancers 2019, 11(2), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020252

Next Generation Sequencing in AML—On the Way to Becoming a New Standard for Treatment Initiation and/or Modulation?

1
Department of Internal Medicine III with Haematology, Medical Oncology, Haemostaseology, Infectiology and Rheumatology, Oncologic Center, Salzburg Cancer Research Institute-Laboratory of Immunological and Molecular Cancer Research (SCRI-LIMCR), 5020 Salzburg, Austria
2
Paracelsus Medical University, 5020 Salzburg, Austria
3
Cancer Cluster Salzburg, 5020 Salzburg, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 January 2019 / Revised: 8 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 21 February 2019
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Abstract

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a clonal disease caused by genetic abberations occurring predominantly in the elderly. Next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis has led to a deeper genetic understanding of the pathogenesis and the role of recently discovered genetic precursor lesions (clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate/oncogenic potential (CHIP/CHOP)) in the evolution of AML. These advances are reflected by the inclusion of certain mutations in the updated World Health Organization (WHO) 2016 classification and current treatment guidelines by the European Leukemia Net (ELN) and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) and results of mutational testing are already influencing the choice and timing of (targeted) treatment. Genetic profiling and stratification of patients into molecularly defined subgroups are expected to gain ever more weight in daily clinical practice. Our aim is to provide a concise summary of current evidence regarding the relevance of NGS for the diagnosis, risk stratification, treatment planning and response assessment in AML, including minimal residual disease (MRD) guided approaches. We also summarize recently approved drugs targeting genetically defined patient populations with risk adapted- and individualized treatment strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: AML; acute myeloid leukemia; next generation sequencing; NGS; targeted therapy; minimal residual disease AML; acute myeloid leukemia; next generation sequencing; NGS; targeted therapy; minimal residual disease
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Leisch, M.; Jansko, B.; Zaborsky, N.; Greil, R.; Pleyer, L. Next Generation Sequencing in AML—On the Way to Becoming a New Standard for Treatment Initiation and/or Modulation? Cancers 2019, 11, 252.

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