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Toxins 2019, 11(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11010031

Assessment of Toxigenic Fusarium Species and Their Mycotoxins in Brewing Barley Grains

1
Biotechnology Department, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes, Sao Paulo 2415, Brazil
2
Department of Food Science, Food Engineering Faculty, University of Campinas, Av. Monteiro Lobato, 80, Campinas 13083862, Brazil
3
Department of Materials Sciences and Engineering, University of the Extreme Southern Santa Catarina, Av. Universitaria, 1105 Criciuma, Santa Catarina 88807-400, Brazil
4
Microbiology Department, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes, Sao Paulo 1374, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 November 2018 / Revised: 20 December 2018 / Accepted: 29 December 2018 / Published: 10 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of LC-MS/MS in the Mycotoxins Studies)
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Abstract

Fusarium species threaten yield and quality of cereals worldwide due to their ability to produce mycotoxins and cause plant diseases. Trichothecenes and zearalenone are the most economically significant mycotoxins and are of particular concern in barley, maize and wheat. For this reason, the aim of this study was to characterize the Fusarium isolates from brewing barley and to assess deoxynivalenol and zearalenone contamination in grains. Characterization of the Fusarium strains was carried out by the phylogeny based on two loci (EF-1α and RPB2). Mycotoxin detection and quantification were performed by LC-MS. The results show that Fusarium was the predominant genus. Phylogenetic study demonstrated that the majority of the strains clustered within the Fusarium sambucinum species complex followed by the Fusarium tricinctum species complex. The results revealed high incidence of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) contamination (90.6% and 87.5%, respectively). It was observed that 86% of the samples contaminated with ZEA were above the limits set by the EU and Brazilian regulations. These results may highlight the importance of controlling Fusarium toxins in barley, mainly because of its use in the brewing industry and the resistance of various mycotoxins to food processing treatments. View Full-Text
Keywords: cereals; mycotoxigenic fungi; phylogeny; deoxynivalenol; zearalenone cereals; mycotoxigenic fungi; phylogeny; deoxynivalenol; zearalenone
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Piacentini, K.C.; Rocha, L.O.; Savi, G.D.; Carnielli-Queiroz, L.; De Carvalho Fontes, L.; Correa, B. Assessment of Toxigenic Fusarium Species and Their Mycotoxins in Brewing Barley Grains. Toxins 2019, 11, 31.

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