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Toxins 2018, 10(10), 416; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10100416

Combining E-Nose and Lateral Flow Immunoassays (LFIAs) for Rapid Occurrence/Co-Occurrence Aflatoxin and Fumonisin Detection in Maize

1
Department of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Trentacoste, 2, 20134 Milan, Italy
2
ATPr&d S.r.l., Via Ca’ Marzare, 3, Camisano Vicentino, 36043 Vicenza, Italy
3
CerealDocks S.p.A., Via dell’Agricoltura, 10, Summaga di Portogruaro, 30026 Venezia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 September 2018 / Revised: 4 October 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Understanding Mycotoxin Occurrence in Food and Feed Chains)
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential use of an e-nose in combination with lateral flow immunoassays for rapid aflatoxin and fumonisin occurrence/co-occurrence detection in maize samples. For this purpose, 161 samples of corn have been used. Below the regulatory limits, single-contaminated, and co-contaminated samples were classified according to the detection ranges established for commercial lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) for mycotoxin determination. Correspondence between methods was evaluated by discriminant function analysis (DFA) procedures using IBM SPSS Statistics 22. Stepwise variable selection was done to select the e-nose sensors for classifying samples by DFA. The overall leave-out-one cross-validated percentage of samples correctly classified by the eight-variate DFA model for aflatoxin was 81%. The overall leave-out-one cross-validated percentage of samples correctly classified by the seven-variate DFA model for fumonisin was 85%. The overall leave-out-one cross-validated percentage of samples correctly classified by the nine-variate DFA model for the three classes of contamination (below the regulatory limits, single-contaminated, co-contaminated) was 65%. Therefore, even though an exhaustive evaluation will require a larger dataset to perform a validation procedure, an electronic nose (e-nose) seems to be a promising rapid/screening method to detect contamination by aflatoxin, fumonisin, or both in maize kernel stocks. View Full-Text
Keywords: Zea mays; aflatoxin; fumonisin; volatile organic compounds (VOCs); electronic nose; co-contamination; discriminant analysis Zea mays; aflatoxin; fumonisin; volatile organic compounds (VOCs); electronic nose; co-contamination; discriminant analysis
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Ottoboni, M.; Pinotti, L.; Tretola, M.; Giromini, C.; Fusi, E.; Rebucci, R.; Grillo, M.; Tassoni, L.; Foresta, S.; Gastaldello, S.; Furlan, V.; Maran, C.; Dell’Orto, V.; Cheli, F. Combining E-Nose and Lateral Flow Immunoassays (LFIAs) for Rapid Occurrence/Co-Occurrence Aflatoxin and Fumonisin Detection in Maize. Toxins 2018, 10, 416.

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