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Open AccessArticle

Carbohydrates from Sources with a Higher Glycemic Index during Adolescence: Is Evening Rather than Morning Intake Relevant for Risk Markers of Type 2 Diabetes in Young Adulthood?

1
IEL-Nutritional Epidemiology, DONALD Study, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-University Bonn, Heinstueck 11, 44225 Dortmund, Germany
2
Institute for Clinical Diabetology, German Diabetes Center, Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research at Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Auf'm Hennekamp 65, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
3
German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, 85764 München-Neuherberg, Germany
4
Department of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Moorenstraße 5, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
5
Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology, Laboratory for Translational Hormone Analytics, Peptide Hormone Research Unit, Center of Child and Adolescent Medicine, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Feulgenstraße 10-12, 35392 Gießen, Germany
6
Institute of Nutrition, Consumption and Health, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University Paderborn, Warburger Straße 100, 33098 Paderborn, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 591; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060591
Received: 11 April 2017 / Revised: 2 June 2017 / Accepted: 7 June 2017 / Published: 10 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes)
Background: This study investigated whether glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) of morning or evening intake and morning or evening carbohydrate intake from low- or higher-GI food sources (low-GI-CHO, higher-GI-CHO) during adolescence are relevant for risk markers of type 2 diabetes in young adulthood. Methods: Analyses included DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study participants who had provided at least two 3-day weighed dietary records (median: 7 records) during adolescence and one blood sample in young adulthood. Using multivariable linear regression analyses, estimated morning and evening GI, GL, low-GI-CHO (GI < 55) and higher-GI-CHO (GI ≥ 55) were related to insulin sensitivity (N = 252), hepatic steatosis index (HSI), fatty liver index (FLI) (both N = 253), and a pro-inflammatory-score (N = 249). Results: Morning intakes during adolescence were not associated with any of the adult risk markers. A higher evening GI during adolescence was related to an increased HSI in young adulthood (p = 0.003). A higher consumption of higher-GI-CHO in the evening was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (p = 0.046) and an increased HSI (p = 0.006), while a higher evening intake of low-GI-CHO was related to a lower HSI (p = 0.009). Evening intakes were not related to FLI or the pro-inflammatory-score (all p > 0.1). Conclusion: Avoidance of large amounts of carbohydrates from higher-GI sources in the evening should be considered in preventive strategies to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. View Full-Text
Keywords: glycaemic index; glycaemic load; daytime; adolescence; type 2 diabetes mellitus glycaemic index; glycaemic load; daytime; adolescence; type 2 diabetes mellitus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Diederichs, T.; Herder, C.; Roßbach, S.; Roden, M.; Wudy, S.A.; Nöthlings, U.; Alexy, U.; Buyken, A.E. Carbohydrates from Sources with a Higher Glycemic Index during Adolescence: Is Evening Rather than Morning Intake Relevant for Risk Markers of Type 2 Diabetes in Young Adulthood? Nutrients 2017, 9, 591. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060591

AMA Style

Diederichs T, Herder C, Roßbach S, Roden M, Wudy SA, Nöthlings U, Alexy U, Buyken AE. Carbohydrates from Sources with a Higher Glycemic Index during Adolescence: Is Evening Rather than Morning Intake Relevant for Risk Markers of Type 2 Diabetes in Young Adulthood? Nutrients. 2017; 9(6):591. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060591

Chicago/Turabian Style

Diederichs, Tanja; Herder, Christian; Roßbach, Sarah; Roden, Michael; Wudy, Stefan A.; Nöthlings, Ute; Alexy, Ute; Buyken, Anette E. 2017. "Carbohydrates from Sources with a Higher Glycemic Index during Adolescence: Is Evening Rather than Morning Intake Relevant for Risk Markers of Type 2 Diabetes in Young Adulthood?" Nutrients 9, no. 6: 591. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060591

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