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Open AccessArticle

Effect of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Metabolic and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

1
Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Paseo Tollocan esq. Jesús Carranza, Col. Moderna de la Cruz, Toluca 50180, Mexico
2
Instlituto Materno-Infantil del Estado de México, Paseo Colón s/n, Col. Villa Hogar, Toluca 50170, Mexico
3
Faculty of Life Sciences and Computing, London Metropolitan University, 166-220 Holloway Road, London N7 8DB, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060573
Received: 25 April 2017 / Revised: 28 May 2017 / Accepted: 1 June 2017 / Published: 3 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes)
Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is accompanied by chronic low-grade inflammation, with an imbalance in the secretion of adipokines and, worsening insulin resistance. Supplementation with n-3 PUFA in T2DM decreases inflammatory markers, the purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on adipokines, metabolic control, and lipid profile in T2DM Mexican adults. Methods: In a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study, 54 patients with T2DM received 520 mg of DHA + EPA-enriched fish-oil (FOG) or a placebo (PG) daily. Baseline and 24-week anthropometric and biochemical measurements included glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb1Ac), leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and lipid profile; n-3 PUFA intake was calculated in g/day. Results: Waist circumference and blood glucose showed significant reductions in the FOG group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.011, respectively). Hb1Ac (p = 0.009 and p = 0.004), leptin (p < 0.000 and p < 0.000), and leptin/adiponectin ratio (p < 0.000 and p < 0.000) decreased significantly in both groups after 24 weeks (FOG and PG respectively). Serum resistin (FOG p < 0.000 and PG p = 0.001), insulin (FOG p < 0.000 and PG p < 0.000), and HOMA-IR (FOG p = 0.000 and PG p < 0.000) increased significantly in both groups. FOG had an overall improvement in the lipid profile with a significant decrease in triacylgycerols (p = 0.002) and atherogenic index (p = 0.031); in contrast, the PG group had increased total cholesterol (p < 0.000), non-HDL cholesterol (p < 0.000), and atherogenic index (p = 0.017). Conclusions: We found a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on waist circumference, glucose, Hb1Ac, leptin, leptin/adiponectin ratio, and lipid profile, without significant changes in adiponectin, and increases in resistin, insulin, and HOMA-IR in both groups. View Full-Text
Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus; adipokines; lipid profile; n-3 PUFAs type 2 diabetes mellitus; adipokines; lipid profile; n-3 PUFAs
MDPI and ACS Style

Jacobo-Cejudo, M.G.; Valdés-Ramos, R.; Guadarrama-López, A.L.; Pardo-Morales, R.-V.; Martínez-Carrillo, B.E.; Harbige, L.S. Effect of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Metabolic and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients. Nutrients 2017, 9, 573. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060573

AMA Style

Jacobo-Cejudo MG, Valdés-Ramos R, Guadarrama-López AL, Pardo-Morales R-V, Martínez-Carrillo BE, Harbige LS. Effect of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Metabolic and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients. Nutrients. 2017; 9(6):573. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060573

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jacobo-Cejudo, M. Gorety; Valdés-Ramos, Roxana; Guadarrama-López, Ana L.; Pardo-Morales, Rosa-Virgen; Martínez-Carrillo, Beatriz E.; Harbige, Laurence S. 2017. "Effect of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Metabolic and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients" Nutrients 9, no. 6: 573. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060573

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