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Systematic Review

Protein Intake and Frailty in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

1
Department of Geriatrics and Orthopedics, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, L.go F. Vito 1, 00168 Rome, Italy
2
Fondazione Policlinico Universitario “Agostino Gemelli” IRCCS, L.go A. Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Yongting Luo and Junjie Luo
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2767; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132767
Received: 17 June 2022 / Accepted: 28 June 2022 / Published: 5 July 2022
Background: The present systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between protein intake and frailty in older adults. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that investigated the association between protein intake and frailty in older adults. Cross-sectional, case-control, and longitudinal cohort studies that investigated the association between protein intake and frailty as a primary or secondary outcome in people aged 60+ years were included. Studies published in languages other than English, Italian, Portuguese, or Spanish were excluded. Studies were retrieved on 31 January 2022. Results: Twelve cross-sectional and five longitudinal studies that investigated 46,469 community-dwelling older adults were included. The meta-analysis indicated that absolute, bodyweight-adjusted, and percentage of protein relative to total energy consumption were not cross-sectionally associated with frailty. However, frail older adults consumed significantly less animal-derived protein than robust people. Finally, high protein consumption was associated with a significantly lower risk of frailty. Conclusions: Our pooled analysis indicates that protein intake, whether absolute, adjusted, or relative to total energy intake, is not significantly associated with frailty in older adults. However, we observed that frail older adults consumed significantly less animal protein than their robust counterparts. View Full-Text
Keywords: anorexia; physical function; walking speed; muscle strength; dynapenia; nutrition; elderly; diet anorexia; physical function; walking speed; muscle strength; dynapenia; nutrition; elderly; diet
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MDPI and ACS Style

Coelho-Junior, H.J.; Calvani, R.; Picca, A.; Tosato, M.; Landi, F.; Marzetti, E. Protein Intake and Frailty in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. Nutrients 2022, 14, 2767. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132767

AMA Style

Coelho-Junior HJ, Calvani R, Picca A, Tosato M, Landi F, Marzetti E. Protein Intake and Frailty in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. Nutrients. 2022; 14(13):2767. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132767

Chicago/Turabian Style

Coelho-Junior, Hélio José, Riccardo Calvani, Anna Picca, Matteo Tosato, Francesco Landi, and Emanuele Marzetti. 2022. "Protein Intake and Frailty in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies" Nutrients 14, no. 13: 2767. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132767

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