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Nutrition and Frailty: Opportunities for Prevention and Treatment

Department of Twin Research and Genetics, King’s College London, St Thomas’ Hospital, Westminster Bridge Road, London SE1 7EH, UK
Academic Geriatric Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Tremona Road, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University of Southampton and University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK
Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3DA, UK
Department of Epidemiology & Public Health, Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK
School of Allied Health, Faculty of Health, Education, Medicine and Social Care, Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford CM1 1SQ, UK
Population Health Sciences Institute, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4AX, UK
AGE Research Group, Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE4 5PL, UK
NIHR Newcastle Biomedical Research Centre, Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust and Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE4 5PL, UK
Institute of Life Course and Medical Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L7 8TX, UK
Institute of Inflammation and Ageing, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
MRC-Versus Arthritis Centre for Musculoskeletal Ageing Research, University of Birmingham and University of Nottingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
Epidemiology & Public Health Group, University of Exeter Medical School, Exeter EX1 2LU, UK
EpiDoC Unit, CEDOC, NOVA Medical School, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 1150-082 Lisbon, Portugal
Comprehensive Health Research Centre (CHRC), NOVA Medical School, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 1169-056 Lisbon, Portugal
School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Sport Science and UCD Institute of Food and Health, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
The Medical Research Council Versus Arthritis Centre for Integrated Research into Musculoskeletal Ageing and The Department of Oncology and Metabolism, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2RX, UK
EDESIA PhD Programme, University of East Anglia Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK
School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Birmingham and NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust and University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Matthew C. Lohman
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2349;
Received: 27 May 2021 / Revised: 28 June 2021 / Accepted: 7 July 2021 / Published: 9 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin, Mineral Deficiency and Poor Diet Quality in Aging)
Frailty is a syndrome of growing importance given the global ageing population. While frailty is a multifactorial process, poor nutritional status is considered a key contributor to its pathophysiology. As nutrition is a modifiable risk factor for frailty, strategies to prevent and treat frailty should consider dietary change. Observational evidence linking nutrition with frailty appears most robust for dietary quality: for example, dietary patterns such as the Mediterranean diet appear to be protective. In addition, research on specific foods, such as a higher consumption of fruit and vegetables and lower consumption of ultra-processed foods are consistent, with healthier profiles linked to lower frailty risk. Few dietary intervention studies have been conducted to date, although a growing number of trials that combine supplementation with exercise training suggest a multi-domain approach may be more effective. This review is based on an interdisciplinary workshop, held in November 2020, and synthesises current understanding of dietary influences on frailty, focusing on opportunities for prevention and treatment. Longer term prospective studies and well-designed trials are needed to determine the causal effects of nutrition on frailty risk and progression and how dietary change can be used to prevent and/or treat frailty in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: frailty; ageing; inflammation; appetite; microbiome; metabolome frailty; ageing; inflammation; appetite; microbiome; metabolome
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ni Lochlainn, M.; Cox, N.J.; Wilson, T.; Hayhoe, R.P.G.; Ramsay, S.E.; Granic, A.; Isanejad, M.; Roberts, H.C.; Wilson, D.; Welch, C.; Hurst, C.; Atkins, J.L.; Mendonça, N.; Horner, K.; Tuttiett, E.R.; Morgan, Y.; Heslop, P.; Williams, E.A.; Steves, C.J.; Greig, C.; Draper, J.; Corish, C.A.; Welch, A.; Witham, M.D.; Sayer, A.A.; Robinson, S. Nutrition and Frailty: Opportunities for Prevention and Treatment. Nutrients 2021, 13, 2349.

AMA Style

Ni Lochlainn M, Cox NJ, Wilson T, Hayhoe RPG, Ramsay SE, Granic A, Isanejad M, Roberts HC, Wilson D, Welch C, Hurst C, Atkins JL, Mendonça N, Horner K, Tuttiett ER, Morgan Y, Heslop P, Williams EA, Steves CJ, Greig C, Draper J, Corish CA, Welch A, Witham MD, Sayer AA, Robinson S. Nutrition and Frailty: Opportunities for Prevention and Treatment. Nutrients. 2021; 13(7):2349.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ni Lochlainn, Mary, Natalie J. Cox, Thomas Wilson, Richard P.G. Hayhoe, Sheena E. Ramsay, Antoneta Granic, Masoud Isanejad, Helen C. Roberts, Daisy Wilson, Carly Welch, Christopher Hurst, Janice L. Atkins, Nuno Mendonça, Katy Horner, Esme R. Tuttiett, Yvie Morgan, Phil Heslop, Elizabeth A. Williams, Claire J. Steves, Carolyn Greig, John Draper, Clare A. Corish, Ailsa Welch, Miles D. Witham, Avan A. Sayer, and Sian Robinson. 2021. "Nutrition and Frailty: Opportunities for Prevention and Treatment" Nutrients 13, no. 7: 2349.

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