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Review

A Link between Chronic Kidney Disease and Gut Microbiota in Immunological and Nutritional Aspects

1
Department of Experimental Immunology, Medical University of Lublin, 4a Chodzki Street, 20-093 Lublin, Poland
2
Department of Pathobiochemistry and Interdisciplinary Applications of Ion Chromatography, Medical University of Lublin, 1 Chodzki Street, 20-093 Lublin, Poland
3
Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Medical University of Lublin, 1 Chodzki Street, 20-093 Lublin, Poland
4
Department of Nephrology, Medical University of Lublin, 8 Jaczewskiego Street, 20-954 Lublin, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jose M. Valdivielso
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3637; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103637
Received: 17 September 2021 / Revised: 14 October 2021 / Accepted: 15 October 2021 / Published: 17 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eating Habits, Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease)
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is generally progressive and irreversible, structural or functional renal impairment for 3 or more months affecting multiple metabolic pathways. Recently, the composition, dynamics, and stability of a patient’s microbiota has been noted to play a significant role during disease onset or progression. Increasing urea concentration during CKD can lead to an acceleration of the process of kidney injury leading to alterations in the intestinal microbiota that can increase the production of gut-derived toxins and alter the intestinal epithelial barrier. A detailed analysis of the relationship between the role of intestinal microbiota and the development of inflammation within the symbiotic and dysbiotic intestinal microbiota showed significant changes in kidney dysfunction. Several recent studies have determined that dietary factors can significantly influence the activation of immune cells and their mediators. Moreover, dietary changes can profoundly affect the balance of gut microbiota. The aim of this review is to present the importance and factors influencing the differentiation of the human microbiota in the progression of kidney diseases, such as CKD, IgA nephropathy, idiopatic nephropathy, and diabetic kidney disease, with particular emphasis on the role of the immune system. Moreover, the effects of nutrients, bioactive compounds on the immune system in development of chronic kidney disease were reviewed. View Full-Text
Keywords: gut microbiota; chronic kidney disease; diet; nutrition gut microbiota; chronic kidney disease; diet; nutrition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mertowska, P.; Mertowski, S.; Wojnicka, J.; Korona-Głowniak, I.; Grywalska, E.; Błażewicz, A.; Załuska, W. A Link between Chronic Kidney Disease and Gut Microbiota in Immunological and Nutritional Aspects. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3637. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103637

AMA Style

Mertowska P, Mertowski S, Wojnicka J, Korona-Głowniak I, Grywalska E, Błażewicz A, Załuska W. A Link between Chronic Kidney Disease and Gut Microbiota in Immunological and Nutritional Aspects. Nutrients. 2021; 13(10):3637. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103637

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mertowska, Paulina, Sebastian Mertowski, Julia Wojnicka, Izabela Korona-Głowniak, Ewelina Grywalska, Anna Błażewicz, and Wojciech Załuska. 2021. "A Link between Chronic Kidney Disease and Gut Microbiota in Immunological and Nutritional Aspects" Nutrients 13, no. 10: 3637. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103637

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