Skeletal muscle is a major organ of insulin-induced glucose metabolism. In addition, loss of muscle mass is closely linked to insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (Met-S). Skeletal muscle loss and accumulation of intramuscular fat are associated with a variety of pathologies through a combination of factors, including oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, mitochondrial dysfunction, IR, and inactivity. Sarcopenia, defined by a loss of muscle mass and a decline in muscle quality and muscle function, is common in the elderly and is also often seen in patients with acute or chronic muscle-wasting diseases. The relationship between Met-S and sarcopenia has been attracting a great deal of attention these days. Persistent inflammation, fat deposition, and IR are thought to play a complex role in the association between Met-S and sarcopenia. Met-S and sarcopenia adversely affect QOL and contribute to increased frailty, weakness, dependence, and morbidity and mortality. Patients with Met-S and sarcopenia at the same time have a higher risk of several adverse health events than those with either Met-S or sarcopenia. Met-S can also be associated with sarcopenic obesity. In this review, the relationship between Met-S and sarcopenia will be outlined from the viewpoints of molecular mechanism and clinical impact.
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