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Review

Metabolic Syndrome and Sarcopenia

1
Second Department of Internal Medicine, Osaka Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Takatsuki 569-8686, Japan
2
Premier Departmental Research of Medicine, Osaka Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Takatsuki 569-8686, Japan
3
Kano General Hospital, Osaka 531-0041, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Frederic Dutheil and Jean-Baptiste Bouillon-Minois
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3519; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103519
Received: 21 August 2021 / Revised: 30 September 2021 / Accepted: 5 October 2021 / Published: 7 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarker of Stress, Metabolic Syndrome and Human Health)
Skeletal muscle is a major organ of insulin-induced glucose metabolism. In addition, loss of muscle mass is closely linked to insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (Met-S). Skeletal muscle loss and accumulation of intramuscular fat are associated with a variety of pathologies through a combination of factors, including oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, mitochondrial dysfunction, IR, and inactivity. Sarcopenia, defined by a loss of muscle mass and a decline in muscle quality and muscle function, is common in the elderly and is also often seen in patients with acute or chronic muscle-wasting diseases. The relationship between Met-S and sarcopenia has been attracting a great deal of attention these days. Persistent inflammation, fat deposition, and IR are thought to play a complex role in the association between Met-S and sarcopenia. Met-S and sarcopenia adversely affect QOL and contribute to increased frailty, weakness, dependence, and morbidity and mortality. Patients with Met-S and sarcopenia at the same time have a higher risk of several adverse health events than those with either Met-S or sarcopenia. Met-S can also be associated with sarcopenic obesity. In this review, the relationship between Met-S and sarcopenia will be outlined from the viewpoints of molecular mechanism and clinical impact. View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolic syndrome; sarcopenia; mechanism; insulin resistance; sarcopenic obesity; outcome metabolic syndrome; sarcopenia; mechanism; insulin resistance; sarcopenic obesity; outcome
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nishikawa, H.; Asai, A.; Fukunishi, S.; Nishiguchi, S.; Higuchi, K. Metabolic Syndrome and Sarcopenia. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3519. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103519

AMA Style

Nishikawa H, Asai A, Fukunishi S, Nishiguchi S, Higuchi K. Metabolic Syndrome and Sarcopenia. Nutrients. 2021; 13(10):3519. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103519

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nishikawa, Hiroki, Akira Asai, Shinya Fukunishi, Shuhei Nishiguchi, and Kazuhide Higuchi. 2021. "Metabolic Syndrome and Sarcopenia" Nutrients 13, no. 10: 3519. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103519

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