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The Relation between Caffeine Consumption and Endometriosis: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London W12 0NN, UK
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Department of Dietetics, West Suffolk Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Bury St Edmunds, Bury Saint Edmunds IP33 2QZ, UK
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Society of Meta-Research and Biomedical Innovation, London W12 0BZ, UK
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Department of Applied Mathematical and Physical Sciences, National Technical University of Athens, 15773 Athens, Greece
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Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK
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Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Helsinki University and University Hospital Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
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Knowledge Translation Program, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, ON M5B 1W8, Canada
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West London Gynaecological Cancer Centre, Imperial College NHS Trust, London W12 0HS, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ajmol Ali
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3457; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103457
Received: 9 September 2021 / Revised: 19 September 2021 / Accepted: 26 September 2021 / Published: 29 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
While the contributing factors leading to endometriosis remain unclear, its clinical heterogeneity suggests a multifactorial causal background. Amongst others, caffeine has been studied extensively during the last decade as a putative contributing factor. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we provide an overview/critical appraisal of studies that report on the association between caffeine consumption and the presence of endometriosis. In our search strategy, we screened PubMed and Scopus for human studies examining the above association. The main outcome was the relative risk of endometriosis in caffeine users versus women consuming little or no caffeine (<100 mg/day). Subgroup analyses were conducted for different levels of caffeine intake: high (>300 mg/day) or moderate (100–300 mg/day). Ten studies were included in the meta-analysis (five cohort and five case-control studies). No statistically significant association was observed between overall caffeine consumption and risk for endometriosis (RR 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97–1.28, I2 = 70%) when compared to little or no (<100 mg/day) caffeine intake. When stratified according to level of consumption, high intake was associated with increased risk of endometriosis (RR 1.30, 95%CI 1.04–1.63, I2 = 56%), whereas moderate intake did not reach nominal statistical significance (RR 1.18, 95%CI 0.99–1.40, I2 = 37%). In conclusion, caffeine consumption does not appear to be associated with increased risk for endometriosis. However, further research is needed to elucidate the potential dose-dependent link between caffeine and endometriosis or the probable role of caffeine intake as a measurement of other unidentified biases. View Full-Text
Keywords: caffeine; coffee; caffeine-containing beverages; endometriosis; environmental factors; meta-analysis; review caffeine; coffee; caffeine-containing beverages; endometriosis; environmental factors; meta-analysis; review
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kechagias, K.S.; Katsikas Triantafyllidis, K.; Kyriakidou, M.; Giannos, P.; Kalliala, I.; Veroniki, A.A.; Paraskevaidi, M.; Kyrgiou, M. The Relation between Caffeine Consumption and Endometriosis: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3457. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103457

AMA Style

Kechagias KS, Katsikas Triantafyllidis K, Kyriakidou M, Giannos P, Kalliala I, Veroniki AA, Paraskevaidi M, Kyrgiou M. The Relation between Caffeine Consumption and Endometriosis: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients. 2021; 13(10):3457. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103457

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kechagias, Konstantinos S., Konstantinos Katsikas Triantafyllidis, Margarita Kyriakidou, Panagiotis Giannos, Ilkka Kalliala, Areti A. Veroniki, Maria Paraskevaidi, and Maria Kyrgiou. 2021. "The Relation between Caffeine Consumption and Endometriosis: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" Nutrients 13, no. 10: 3457. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103457

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