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Open AccessArticle

Total Energy Expenditure, Body Composition, Physical Activity, and Step Count in Japanese Preschool Children: A Study Based on Doubly Labeled Water

1
National Institute of Health and Nutrition, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Tokyo 162-8636, Japan
2
Institute for Active Health, Kyoto University of Advanced Science, Kyoto 621-8555, Japan
3
Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577, Japan
4
Department of Health, Sports and Nutrition, Faculty of Health and Welfare, Kobe Women’s University, Hyogo 650-0046, Japan
5
Faculty of Education, Bukkyo University, Kyoto 603-8301, Japan
6
Kyoto Compulsory Education School Attached to Kyoto University of Education, Kyoto 603-8163, Japan
7
Fukuoka University Institute for Physical Activity and Faculty of Sports and Health Science, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka 814-0180, Japan
8
Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Kyoto University of Advanced Science, Kyoto 621-8555, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1223; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051223
Received: 26 March 2020 / Revised: 19 April 2020 / Accepted: 23 April 2020 / Published: 26 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Physical Activity for Human Health)
Adequate energy intake is essential for the healthy development of children, and the estimated energy requirement of children is determined by total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and energy deposition for growth. A previous study in Japanese tweens indicated that TDEE could be estimated by fat-free mass (FFM) and step count. The aims of this study were to measure TDEE in Japanese preschool children and to confirm whether TDEE can be estimated by FFM and step count in preschool children. Twenty-one children aged 4–6 years old (11 girls and 10 boys; age, 5.1 (0.9) years; height, 107.2 (6.6) cm; weight, 17.5 (1.7) kg; BMI, 15.3 (1.3); mean (SD)) participated in this study. FFM and 7-day TDEE were obtained by doubly labeled water (DLW). Participants wore accelerometers during the DLW measurement period. No significant differences were observed in age-adjusted height, weight, BMI, FFM (13.0 (1.5) kg), or TDEE (1300 (174) kcal/day) between girls and boys. Girls had significantly higher percent fat and a lower daily step count than boys. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that FFM and step count were significant predictors of TDEE; TDEE (kcal/day) = 85.0 × FFM (kg) + 0.0135 × step count (steps/day). This accounted for 74% of TDEE variance. The current study confirmed that FFM and step count are major determinants of TDEE in Japanese preschool children as well as adolescents, although further research is needed to obtain precise equations. View Full-Text
Keywords: doubly labeled water; total energy expenditure; physical activity level; accelerometer; pedometer; fat-free mass; percent fat; step count; estimated energy requirement doubly labeled water; total energy expenditure; physical activity level; accelerometer; pedometer; fat-free mass; percent fat; step count; estimated energy requirement
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Yamada, Y.; Sagayama, H.; Itoi, A.; Nishimura, M.; Fujisawa, K.; Higaki, Y.; Kimura, M.; Aoki, Y. Total Energy Expenditure, Body Composition, Physical Activity, and Step Count in Japanese Preschool Children: A Study Based on Doubly Labeled Water. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1223.

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