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Open AccessArticle

Taste Changes in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Associations with PROP Phenotypes and polymorphisms in the salivary protein, Gustin and CD36 Receptor Genes

1
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Cagliari, 09042 Monserrato (CA), Italy
2
Department of Medical Sciences and Public Health, University of Cagliari, Presidio Policlinico of Monserrato, 09042 Monserrato (CA), Italy
3
Department of Food Science, School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8520, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this study.
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020409
Received: 8 January 2020 / Revised: 28 January 2020 / Accepted: 29 January 2020 / Published: 4 February 2020
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract resulting from interactions among various factors with diet being one of the most significant. IBD-related dietary behaviors are not clearly related to taste dysfunctions. We analyzed body mass index (BMI) and perception of six taste qualities and assessed effects of specific taste genes in IBD patients and healthy subjects (HC). BMI in IBD patients was higher than in HC subjects. Taste sensitivity to taste qualities was reduced in IBD patients, except for sour taste, which was higher than in HC subjects. Genetic variations were related to some taste responses in HC subjects, but not in IBD patients. Frequencies of genotype AA and allele A in CD36 polymorphism (rs1761667) were significantly higher in IBD patients than in HC subjects. The taste changes observed could be explained by the oral pathologies and microbiome variations known for IBD patients and can justify their typical dietary behaviors. The lack of genetic effects on taste in IBD patients indicates that IBD might compromise taste so severely that gene effects cannot be observed. However, the high frequency of the non-tasting form of CD36 substantiates the fact that IBD-associated fat taste impairment may represent a risk factor for IBD.
Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); taste; gene effects inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); taste; gene effects
MDPI and ACS Style

Melis, M.; Mastinu, M.; Sollai, G.; Paduano, D.; Chicco, F.; Magrì, S.; Usai, P.; Crnjar, R.; Tepper, B.J.; Barbarossa, I.T. Taste Changes in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Associations with PROP Phenotypes and polymorphisms in the salivary protein, Gustin and CD36 Receptor Genes. Nutrients 2020, 12, 409.

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