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Supplements and Nutritional Interventions to Augment High-Intensity Interval Training Physiological and Performance Adaptations—A Narrative Review

1
Faculty of Education, Department of Physical Education, Brandon University, Brandon, MB R7A6A9, Canada
2
Faculty of Kinesiology and Health Studies, University of Regina, Regina, SK S4S0A2, Canada
3
Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27514, USA
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School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA
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Department of Exercise Science and Sport Management, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144, USA
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Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, School of Nutrition and Dietetics, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS B4P2R6, Canada
7
School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University of British Columbia, Okanagan Campus, Kelowna, BC V1V1V7, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 390; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020390
Received: 27 December 2019 / Revised: 22 January 2020 / Accepted: 29 January 2020 / Published: 31 January 2020
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) involves short bursts of intense activity interspersed by periods of low-intensity exercise or rest. HIIT is a viable alternative to traditional continuous moderate-intensity endurance training to enhance maximal oxygen uptake and endurance performance. Combining nutritional strategies with HIIT may result in more favorable outcomes. The purpose of this narrative review is to highlight key dietary interventions that may augment adaptations to HIIT, including creatine monohydrate, caffeine, nitrate, sodium bicarbonate, beta-alanine, protein, and essential amino acids, as well as manipulating carbohydrate availability. Nutrient timing and potential sex differences are also discussed. Overall, sodium bicarbonate and nitrates show promise for enhancing HIIT adaptations and performance. Beta-alanine has the potential to increase training volume and intensity and improve HIIT adaptations. Caffeine and creatine have potential benefits, however, longer-term studies are lacking. Presently, there is a lack of evidence supporting high protein diets to augment HIIT. Low carbohydrate training enhances the upregulation of mitochondrial enzymes, however, there does not seem to be a performance advantage, and a periodized approach may be warranted. Lastly, potential sex differences suggest the need for future research to examine sex-specific nutritional strategies in response to HIIT. View Full-Text
Keywords: supplements; creatine; caffeine; protein; beta-alanine; glycogen; exercise supplements; creatine; caffeine; protein; beta-alanine; glycogen; exercise
MDPI and ACS Style

Forbes, S.C.; Candow, D.G.; Smith-Ryan, A.E.; Hirsch, K.R.; Roberts, M.D.; VanDusseldorp, T.A.; Stratton, M.T.; Kaviani, M.; Little, J.P. Supplements and Nutritional Interventions to Augment High-Intensity Interval Training Physiological and Performance Adaptations—A Narrative Review. Nutrients 2020, 12, 390.

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