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Review

Molecules Produced by Probiotics and Intestinal Microorganisms with Immunomodulatory Activity

1
Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry of Dairy Products, Dairy Research Institute of Asturias (IPLA)-Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Villaviciosa, 33300 Asturias, Spain
2
Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Principado de Asturias (ISPA), Oviedo, 33011 Asturias, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020391
Received: 7 January 2020 / Revised: 30 January 2020 / Accepted: 30 January 2020 / Published: 1 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Immunonutrient in Human Health and Disease)
Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. The probiotic microorganisms most commonly used in the food and pharmacy industry belong to Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and several strains of these genera have demonstrated beneficial attributes. In addition, some other intestinal bacteria inhabiting the human microbiota, such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Akkermansia muciniphila, have recently been discovered and are able to display health-promoting effects in animal and human trials. The beneficial properties of probiotics have been known for a long time, although little is known about the molecular mechanisms and the molecules responsible for their effects. However, in recent years, advances in microbiome studies, and the use of novel analytical and molecular techniques have allowed a deeper insight into their effects at the molecular level. This review summarizes the current knowledge of some of the molecules of probiotics and other intestinal commensal bacteria responsible for their immunomodulatory effect, focusing on those with more solid scientific evidence. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbiota; microbiome; probiotics; immunomodulation; molecular effectors microbiota; microbiome; probiotics; immunomodulation; molecular effectors
MDPI and ACS Style

Delgado, S.; Sánchez, B.; Margolles, A.; Ruas-Madiedo, P.; Ruiz, L. Molecules Produced by Probiotics and Intestinal Microorganisms with Immunomodulatory Activity. Nutrients 2020, 12, 391. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020391

AMA Style

Delgado S, Sánchez B, Margolles A, Ruas-Madiedo P, Ruiz L. Molecules Produced by Probiotics and Intestinal Microorganisms with Immunomodulatory Activity. Nutrients. 2020; 12(2):391. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020391

Chicago/Turabian Style

Delgado, Susana, Borja Sánchez, Abelardo Margolles, Patricia Ruas-Madiedo, and Lorena Ruiz. 2020. "Molecules Produced by Probiotics and Intestinal Microorganisms with Immunomodulatory Activity" Nutrients 12, no. 2: 391. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020391

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