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Article

Caffeine-Containing Energy Shots Cause Acute Impaired Glucoregulation in Adolescents

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Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4N1, Canada
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Alberta Children’s Hospital Research Institute, Alberta Children’s Hospital, Calgary, AB T2N 4N1, Canada
3
Discovery DNA Inc., Calgary, AB T2N 4N1, Canada
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Department of Pediatrics, Alberta Children’s Hospital, Calgary, AB T2N 4N1, Canada
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Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
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College of Food, Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3850; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123850
Received: 19 November 2020 / Revised: 8 December 2020 / Accepted: 14 December 2020 / Published: 16 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Dietary Elements in Glucose Metabolism)
Caffeine-containing, nutritionally fortified energy shots are consumed at high rates by adolescents, yet little is known about their metabolic impact. The purpose of this study was to examine the consequences of small format, caffeinated energy shots on glucose metabolism and gastrointestinal hormone secretion in adolescents. Twenty participants aged 13–19 years participated in a double-blind, randomized cross-over study consisting of two trials separated by 1–4 weeks. Participants consumed a volume-matched caffeinated energy shot (CAF, 5 mg/kg) or a decaffeinated energy shot (DECAF) followed by a 2 h oral glucose tolerance test. Blood samples were collected and area under the curve (AUC) calculated for glucose, insulin and gut and metabolic hormones. Consumption of CAF resulted in a 25% increase in glucose and a 26% increase in insulin area under the curve (AUC, p = 0.037; p < 0.0001) compared to DECAF. No impact on gut hormones was observed. To further characterize responses, individuals were classified as either slow or fast caffeine metabolizers based on an allele score. Glucose intolerance was greater in genetically fast vs. slow caffeine metabolizers and differences between groups were supported by distinct serum metabolomics separation. Consumption of caffeine-containing energy shots results in acute impaired glucoregulation in healthy adolescents as characterized by hyperinsulinemia following an oral glucose challenge. View Full-Text
Keywords: pediatrics; adolescent; adverse reaction; energy drink; metabolomics pediatrics; adolescent; adverse reaction; energy drink; metabolomics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shearer, J.; Reimer, R.A.; Hittel, D.S.; Gault, M.A.; Vogel, H.J.; Klein, M.S. Caffeine-Containing Energy Shots Cause Acute Impaired Glucoregulation in Adolescents. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3850. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123850

AMA Style

Shearer J, Reimer RA, Hittel DS, Gault MA, Vogel HJ, Klein MS. Caffeine-Containing Energy Shots Cause Acute Impaired Glucoregulation in Adolescents. Nutrients. 2020; 12(12):3850. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123850

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shearer, Jane, Raylene A. Reimer, Dustin S. Hittel, Mackenzie A. Gault, Hans J. Vogel, and Matthias S. Klein. 2020. "Caffeine-Containing Energy Shots Cause Acute Impaired Glucoregulation in Adolescents" Nutrients 12, no. 12: 3850. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123850

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