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Operationalizing the 2018 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) Cancer Prevention Recommendations: A Standardized Scoring System

1
Risk Factor Assessment Branch, Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
2
American Institute for Cancer Research, Arlington, VA 22209, USA
3
World Cancer Research Fund International, 22 Bedford Square, London, WC1B 3HH, UK
4
Balearic Islands Health Research Institute (IdISBa), University Hospital Son Espases, 07120 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
5
Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal), 08003 Barcelona, Spain
6
CIBER Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBEROBN), 28029 Madrid, Spain
7
Information Management Services, Inc., Rockville, MD 20850, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1572; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071572
Received: 29 May 2019 / Revised: 10 July 2019 / Accepted: 10 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity And Diet For Health Optimisation)
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Abstract

Background: Following the publication of the 2018 World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) Third Expert Report, a collaborative group was formed to develop a standardized scoring system and provide guidance for research applications. Methods: The 2018 WCRF/AICR Cancer Prevention Recommendations, goals, and statements of advice were examined to define components of the new Score. Cut-points for scoring were based on quantitative guidance in the 2018 Recommendations and other guidelines, past research that operationalized 2007 WCRF/AICR Recommendations, and advice from the Continuous Update Project Expert Panel. Results: Eight of the ten 2018 WCRF/AICR Recommendations concerning weight, physical activity, diet, and breastfeeding (optional), were selected for inclusion. Each component is worth one point: 1, 0.5, and 0 points for fully, partially, and not meeting each recommendation, respectively (Score: 0 to 7–8 points). Two recommendations on dietary supplement use and for cancer survivors are not included due to operational redundancy. Additional guidance stresses the importance of accounting for other risk factors (e.g., smoking) in relevant models. Conclusions: The proposed 2018 WCRF/AICR Score is a practical tool for researchers to examine how adherence to the 2018 WCRF/AICR Recommendations relates to cancer risk and mortality in various adult populations. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer prevention; diet; weight; physical activity; breastfeeding; dietary guidelines; index score cancer prevention; diet; weight; physical activity; breastfeeding; dietary guidelines; index score
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Shams-White, M.M.; Brockton, N.T.; Mitrou, P.; Romaguera, D.; Brown, S.; Bender, A.; Kahle, L.L.; Reedy, J. Operationalizing the 2018 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) Cancer Prevention Recommendations: A Standardized Scoring System. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1572.

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