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Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 826; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040826

Effect of Red, Processed, and White Meat Consumption on the Risk of Gastric Cancer: An Overall and Dose–Response Meta-Analysis

1
Department of Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, South Korea
2
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University Graduate School, Seoul 03080, South Korea
3
Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do 24341, South Korea
4
JW Lee Center for Global Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03087, South Korea
5
Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
6
Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Dongguk University, Goyang 10326, South Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 February 2019 / Revised: 30 March 2019 / Accepted: 8 April 2019 / Published: 11 April 2019
PDF [571 KB, uploaded 11 April 2019]

Abstract

: Whether the risk of gastric cancer varies by the types of meat consumption still remains disputable. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to identify the exact associations that red, processed, and white meat have with gastric cancer. We searched relevant studies in Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library before November 2018, including cohort and case-control studies. We used random-effect models to estimate the adjusted relative risk (RR), and Egger’s tests to evaluate publication bias. Through stepwise screening, 43 studies were included in this analysis (11 cohort studies and 32 case-control studies with 16,572 cases). In a meta-analysis for the highest versus lowest categories of meat consumption, both red (RR: 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21–1.66) and processed (RR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.37–1.81) meat consumption were positively associated with gastric cancer risk, while white meat consumption was negatively associated with gastric cancer risk (RR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.69–0.92). In a dose–response meta-analysis, the RRs of gastric cancer were 1.26 (95% CI: 1.11–1.42) for every 100 g/day increment in red meat consumption, 1.72 (95% CI: 1.36–2.18) for every 50 g/day increment in processed meat consumption, and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.64–1.15) for every 100 g/day increment in white meat consumption. The increase of white meat consumption may reduce the risk of gastric cancer, while red or processed meat may increase the risk of gastric cancer. Further studies are required to identify these associations, especially between white meat and gastric cancer.
Keywords: white meat; red meat; processed meat; gastric cancer; cancer epidemiology white meat; red meat; processed meat; gastric cancer; cancer epidemiology
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kim, S.R.; Kim, K.; Lee, S.A.; Kwon, S.O.; Lee, J.-K.; Keum, N.; Park, S.M. Effect of Red, Processed, and White Meat Consumption on the Risk of Gastric Cancer: An Overall and Dose–Response Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2019, 11, 826.

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