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Open AccessArticle

Red and Processed Meat and Mortality in a Low Meat Intake Population

School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA
College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Khalid University, Abha 61421, Saudi Arabia
School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 622;
Received: 19 February 2019 / Revised: 6 March 2019 / Accepted: 8 March 2019 / Published: 14 March 2019
Associations of low-to-moderate consumption of red and processed meat with mortality would add to the evidence of possible adverse effects of these common foods. This study aims to investigate the association of red and processed meat intake with mortality. The Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) is a prospective cohort study of ~96,000 Seventh-day Adventist men and women recruited in the US and Canada between 2002 and 2007. The final analytic sample after exclusions was 72,149. Cox proportional hazards regression was used and hazard ratios (HR) and confidence intervals (CI) were obtained. Diet was assessed by a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), calibrated using six 24-h dietary recalls. Mortality outcome data were obtained from the National Death Index. During a mean follow-up of 11.8 years, there were 7961 total deaths, of which 2598 were Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) deaths and 1873 were cancer deaths. Unprocessed red meat was associated with risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.07–1.31) and CVD mortality (HR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.05–1.50). Processed meat alone was not significantly associated with risk of mortality. The combined intake of red and processed meat was associated with all-cause mortality (HR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.11–1.36) and CVD mortality (HR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.12–1.60). These findings suggest moderately higher risks of all-cause and CVD mortality associated with red and processed meat in a low meat intake population. View Full-Text
Keywords: red meat; processed meat; mortality; Adventist Health Study; cohort; Adventist red meat; processed meat; mortality; Adventist Health Study; cohort; Adventist
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Alshahrani, S.M.; Fraser, G.E.; Sabaté, J.; Knutsen, R.; Shavlik, D.; Mashchak, A.; Lloren, J.I.; Orlich, M.J. Red and Processed Meat and Mortality in a Low Meat Intake Population. Nutrients 2019, 11, 622.

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