Next Article in Journal
Theoretical Food and Nutrient Composition of Whole-Food Plant-Based and Vegan Diets Compared to Current Dietary Recommendations
Next Article in Special Issue
Childhood Dietary Intake in Italy: The Epidemiological “MY FOOD DIARY” Survey
Previous Article in Journal
Relative Validity of the Eat and Track (EaT) Smartphone App for Collection of Dietary Intake Data in 18-to-30-Year Olds
Previous Article in Special Issue
Subjects’ Perception in Quantifying Printed and Digital Photos of Food Portions
Open AccessArticle

Red and Processed Meat and Mortality in a Low Meat Intake Population

1
School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA
2
College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Khalid University, Abha 61421, Saudi Arabia
3
School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 622; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030622
Received: 19 February 2019 / Revised: 6 March 2019 / Accepted: 8 March 2019 / Published: 14 March 2019
  |  
PDF [477 KB, uploaded 14 March 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Associations of low-to-moderate consumption of red and processed meat with mortality would add to the evidence of possible adverse effects of these common foods. This study aims to investigate the association of red and processed meat intake with mortality. The Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) is a prospective cohort study of ~96,000 Seventh-day Adventist men and women recruited in the US and Canada between 2002 and 2007. The final analytic sample after exclusions was 72,149. Cox proportional hazards regression was used and hazard ratios (HR) and confidence intervals (CI) were obtained. Diet was assessed by a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), calibrated using six 24-h dietary recalls. Mortality outcome data were obtained from the National Death Index. During a mean follow-up of 11.8 years, there were 7961 total deaths, of which 2598 were Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) deaths and 1873 were cancer deaths. Unprocessed red meat was associated with risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.07–1.31) and CVD mortality (HR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.05–1.50). Processed meat alone was not significantly associated with risk of mortality. The combined intake of red and processed meat was associated with all-cause mortality (HR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.11–1.36) and CVD mortality (HR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.12–1.60). These findings suggest moderately higher risks of all-cause and CVD mortality associated with red and processed meat in a low meat intake population. View Full-Text
Keywords: red meat; processed meat; mortality; Adventist Health Study; cohort; Adventist red meat; processed meat; mortality; Adventist Health Study; cohort; Adventist
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Alshahrani, S.M.; Fraser, G.E.; Sabaté, J.; Knutsen, R.; Shavlik, D.; Mashchak, A.; Lloren, J.I.; Orlich, M.J. Red and Processed Meat and Mortality in a Low Meat Intake Population. Nutrients 2019, 11, 622.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top