Next Article in Journal
Caloric and Macronutrient Intake Differ with Circadian Phase and between Lean and Overweight Young Adults
Next Article in Special Issue
A Scientific Perspective of Personalised Gene-Based Dietary Recommendations for Weight Management
Previous Article in Journal
The PYY/Y2R-Deficient Mouse Responds Normally to High-Fat Diet and Gastric Bypass Surgery
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Differences in Postprandial Serum Concentrations of Peptides That Regulate Satiety/Hunger and Metabolism after Various Meal Intake, in Men with Normal vs. Excessive BMI
Article Menu

Export Article

Version is current.

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 586;

Pretreatment Fasting Glucose and Insulin as Determinants of Weight Loss on Diets Varying in Macronutrients and Dietary Fibers—The POUNDS LOST Study

Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 26, 1958 Frederiksberg, Denmark
Pennington Biomedical Research Center of the Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
Gelesis, Boston, MA 02116, USA
School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Texas Woman’s University, Denton, TX 76204, USA
Nutrition Department, Harvard T.H Chan School of Public Health and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 January 2019 / Revised: 4 March 2019 / Accepted: 6 March 2019 / Published: 11 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Nutrition)
Full-Text   |   PDF [706 KB, uploaded 15 March 2019]   |  


Efforts to identify a preferable diet for weight management based on macronutrient composition have largely failed, but recent evidence suggests that satiety effects of carbohydrates may depend on the individual’s insulin-mediated cellular glucose uptake. Therefore, using data from the POUNDS LOST trial, pre-treatment fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FI), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were studied as prognostic markers of long-term weight loss in four diets differing in carbohydrate, fat, and protein content, while assessing the role of dietary fiber intake. Subjects with FPG <100 mg/dL lost 2.6 (95% CI 0.9;4.4, p = 0.003) kg more on the low-fat/high-protein (n = 132) compared to the low-fat/average-protein diet (n = 136). Subjects with HOMA-IR ≥4 lost 3.6 (95% CI 0.2;7.1, p = 0.038) kg more body weight on the high-fat/high-protein (n = 35) compared to high-fat/average-protein diet (n = 33). Regardless of the randomized diet, subjects with prediabetes and FI below the median lost 5.6 kg (95% CI 0.6;10.6, p = 0.030) more when consuming ≥35 g (n = 15) compared to <35 g dietary fiber/10 MJ (n = 16). Overall, subjects with normal glycemia lost most on the low-fat/high-protein diet, subjects with high HOMA-IR lost most on the high-fat/high protein diet, and subjects with prediabetes and low FI had particular benefit from dietary fiber in the diet. View Full-Text
Keywords: glucose; insulin; weight; diet; macronutrient composition; clinical nutrition glucose; insulin; weight; diet; macronutrient composition; clinical nutrition

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hjorth, M.F.; Bray, G.A.; Zohar, Y.; Urban, L.; Miketinas, D.C.; Williamson, D.A.; Ryan, D.H.; Rood, J.; Champagne, C.M.; Sacks, F.M.; Astrup, A. Pretreatment Fasting Glucose and Insulin as Determinants of Weight Loss on Diets Varying in Macronutrients and Dietary Fibers—The POUNDS LOST Study. Nutrients 2019, 11, 586.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top