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Open AccessArticle

Maternal Iodine Status and Associations with Birth Outcomes in Three Major Cities in the United Kingdom

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Department of Clinical and Population Science, Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
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Leeds Institute for Data Analytics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
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Nutritional Epidemiology Group, School of Food Science & Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
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Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
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Laboratory for Human Nutrition, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), 8092 Zürich, Switzerland
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Earth Surface Science Institute, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
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Division of Women’s Health, Women’s Health Academic Centre, King’s College London, London SE1 7EH, UK
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Maternal and Fetal Health Research Centre, Institute of Human Development, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 0JH, UK
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Division of Women’s and Children’s Health, School of Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These two authors joint first authors.
These three authors joint senior authors.
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 441; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020441
Received: 28 January 2019 / Revised: 7 February 2019 / Accepted: 8 February 2019 / Published: 20 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Pregnancy Nutrition in Maternal and Offspring Health)
Severe iodine deficiency in mothers is known to impair foetal development. Pregnant women in the UK may be iodine insufficient, but recent assessments of iodine status are limited. This study assessed maternal urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) and birth outcomes in three UK cities. Spot urines were collected from 541 women in London, Manchester and Leeds from 2004–2008 as part of the Screening for Pregnancy End points (SCOPE) study. UIC at 15 and 20 weeks’ gestation was estimated using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Associations were estimated between iodine status (UIC and iodine-to-creatinine ratio) and birth weight, birth weight centile (primary outcome), small for gestational age (SGA) and spontaneous preterm birth. Median UIC was highest in Manchester (139 μg/L, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 126, 158) and London (130 μg/L, 95% CI: 114, 177) and lowest in Leeds (116 μg/L, 95% CI: 99, 135), but the proportion with UIC <50 µg/L was <20% in all three cities. No evidence of an association was observed between UIC and birth weight centile (−0.2% per 50 μg/L increase in UIC, 95% CI: −1.3, 0.8), nor with odds of spontaneous preterm birth (odds ratio = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.84, 1.20). Given the finding of iodine concentrations being insufficient according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines amongst pregnant women across all three cities, further studies may be needed to explore implications for maternal thyroid function and longer-term child health outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: Iodine; pregnancy; birth weight; Insufficiency; SGA; preterm Birth Iodine; pregnancy; birth weight; Insufficiency; SGA; preterm Birth
MDPI and ACS Style

Snart, C.J.P.; Keeble, C.; Taylor, E.; Cade, J.E.; Stewart, P.M.; Zimmermann, M.; Reid, S.; Threapleton, D.E.; Poston, L.; Myers, J.E.; Simpson, N.A.B.; Greenwood, D.C.; Hardie, L.J. Maternal Iodine Status and Associations with Birth Outcomes in Three Major Cities in the United Kingdom. Nutrients 2019, 11, 441.

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