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Open AccessArticle

The Effects of Anthocyanins and Their Microbial Metabolites on the Expression and Enzyme Activities of Paraoxonase 1, an Important Marker of HDL Function

1
Food Innovation & Health, Quadram Institute Bioscience, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7UA, UK
2
Food Science and Technology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Alexandria 23511, Egypt
3
Institute of Human Nutrition and Food Science, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, 24118 Kiel, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2872; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122872
Received: 7 November 2019 / Revised: 19 November 2019 / Accepted: 21 November 2019 / Published: 24 November 2019
High circulating HDL concentrations and measures of various HDL functions are inversely associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) contributes to many of the athero-protective functions of HDL, such as promoting the reverse cholesterol transport process and reducing the levels of oxidized LDL. PON1 activities are influenced by several factors, the most important being diet and genetic polymorphisms. Reported data from randomized controlled trials have shown that anthocyanin consumption increased PON1 activity. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which anthocyanins increase PON1 activity are not understood. Therefore, the aim of this research was to investigate the ability of anthocyanins and their metabolites to increase PON1 gene expression and/or enzyme activities as potential mechanisms. The effect of the two predominant dietary anthocyanins and 18 of their recently identified microbial metabolites including their phase-II conjugates on PON1 gene expression was studied using a PON1-Huh7 stably-transfected cell line and reporter gene assay. The effects of these compounds on PON1 arylesterase and lactonase activities were investigated using two isoforms of the PON1 enzyme that are the phenotypes of the 192Q/R polymorphism. None of the compounds caused even modest changes in PON1 promoter activity (p ≥ 0.05). Further, none of the compounds at physiological concentrations caused any significant changes in the arylesterase or lactonase activity of either of the iso-enzymes. Cyanidin reduced the lactonase activity of the PON1-R192R enzyme at high concentrations (−22%, p < 0.001), but not at physiologically achievable concentrations. In conclusion, none of the data reported here support the notion that anthocyanins or their metabolites affect PON1 transactivation or enzyme activities. View Full-Text
Keywords: polyphenols; flavonoids; phase-II metabolism; anthocyanin metabolites; human metabolism; lactonase activity; arylesterase activity; promoter activity; single nucleotide polymorphism; protocatechuic acid; phloroglucinaldehyde polyphenols; flavonoids; phase-II metabolism; anthocyanin metabolites; human metabolism; lactonase activity; arylesterase activity; promoter activity; single nucleotide polymorphism; protocatechuic acid; phloroglucinaldehyde
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Aboufarrag, H.T.; Needs, P.W.; Rimbach, G.; Kroon, P.A. The Effects of Anthocyanins and Their Microbial Metabolites on the Expression and Enzyme Activities of Paraoxonase 1, an Important Marker of HDL Function. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2872.

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