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Open AccessArticle

Association of Dairy Product Consumption with Metabolic and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the LabMed Study

Research Centre in Physical Activity, Health and Leisure, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal
Faculty of Psychology, Education and Sports, Lusófona University of Porto, 4000-098 Porto, Portugal
Faculty of Health Sciences, Klaipeda University, LT-91274 Klaipeda, Lithuania
Early Start Research Institute, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Education, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
General Directorate of Health—National Program for Physical Activity Promotion, 1499-002 Lisbon, Portugal
University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, 5001-801 Vila-Real, Portugal
Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Porto, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
School of Nursing, University of Minho, 4710 Braga, Portugal
Interdisciplinary Centre for the Study of Human Performance, Faculty of Human Kinetic, 1499-002 Lisbon, Portugal
Health Sciences Research Unit: Nursing (UICISA: E), Nursing School of Coimbra (ESEnfC), 3000-232 Coimbra, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2268;
Received: 14 August 2019 / Revised: 17 September 2019 / Accepted: 19 September 2019 / Published: 21 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Products Consumption for Human Health)
This study aimed to investigate the association between dairy product consumption and metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers in Portuguese adolescents, and whether the association differed by weight status. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the school year 2011/2012 with 412 Portuguese adolescents (52.4% girls) in 7th and 10th grade (aged 12 to 18 years old). The World Health Organization cutoffs were used to categorize adolescents as non-overweight (NW) or overweight (OW). Blood samples were collected to analyze C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), leptin, and adiponectin. Dairy product intake was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire. Participants were divided by tertiles according to the amount of dairy product consumed. The associations between dairy product consumption with metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers were evaluated using generalized linear regression models with logarithmic link and gamma distribution and adjusted for potential confounders. The majority of adolescents were NW (67.2%). NW adolescents had lower IL-6, CRP, and leptin concentration than their counterparts (p < 0.05, for all comparisons). Higher levels of total dairy product and milk intake were inversely associated with IL-6 (P for trend <0.05, for all) in NW adolescents, but not in OW adolescents. NW adolescents in the second tertile of yogurt consumption had lower level of IL-6 compared to those in the first tertile (p = 0.004). Our results suggest an inverse association between total dairy product and milk intake and serum concentrations of IL-6 only among NW adolescents. View Full-Text
Keywords: dairy products; inflammation; adolescents dairy products; inflammation; adolescents
MDPI and ACS Style

Abreu, S.; Agostinis-Sobrinho, C.; Santos, R.; Moreira, C.; Lopes, L.; Gonçalves, C.; Oliveira-Santos, J.; Sousa-Sá, E.; Rodrigues, B.; Mota, J.; Rosário, R. Association of Dairy Product Consumption with Metabolic and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the LabMed Study. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2268.

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