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Article

Effects of a High-Protein/Moderate-Carbohydrate Diet on Appetite, Gut Peptides, and Endocannabinoids—A Preview Study

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Department of Nutrition and Movement Sciences, Maastricht University Medical Centre, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
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NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
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Department of Endocrinology, University Hospital of Bordeaux, F-33607 Pessac, France
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INSERM, Neurocentre Magendie, Physiopathologie de la Plasticité Neuronale, U1215, F-33000 Bordeaux, France
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University of Bordeaux, Neurocentre Magendie, Physiopathologie de la Plasticité Neuronale, U1215, F-33000 Bordeaux, France
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Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, DK1017 Copenhagen, Denmark
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Department of Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland
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NNF Center of Basic Metabolic Research and Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors contributed equally to the paper.
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2269; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102269
Received: 15 August 2019 / Revised: 18 September 2019 / Accepted: 19 September 2019 / Published: 21 September 2019
Favorable effects of a high-protein/moderate-carbohydrate (HP/MCHO) diet after weight loss on body weight management have been shown. To extend these findings, associations between perception of hunger and satiety with endocannabinoids, and with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and polypeptide YY (PYY) were assessed. At approximately 34 months after weight loss, 22 female and 16 male participants (mean age 64.5 ± 5.9 years; body mass index (BMI) 28.9 ± 3.9 kg/m2) completed a 48 h respiration chamber study. Participants were fed in energy balance with a HP/MCHO diet with 25%:45%:30% or a moderate-protein/high-carbohydrate (MP/HCHO) diet with 15%:55%:30% of energy from protein:carbohydrate:fat. Endocannabinoids and related compounds, relevant postprandial hormones (GLP-1, PYY), hunger, satiety, and ad libitum food intake were assessed. HP/MCHO versus MP/HCHO reduced hunger perception. The lower decremental area under the curve (dAUC) for hunger in the HP/MCHO diet (−56.6% compared to MP, p < 0.05) was associated with the higher AUC for 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) concentrations (p < 0.05). Hunger was inversely associated with PYY in the HP/MCHO group (r = −0.7, p < 0.01). Ad libitum food intake, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and incremental AUCs for gut peptides were not different between conditions. HP/MCHO versus MP/HCHO diet-induced reduction in hunger was present after 34 months weight maintenance in the post-obese state. HP/MCHO diet-induced decrease of hunger is suggested to interact with increased 2-AG and PYY concentrations. View Full-Text
Keywords: Protein; endocannabinoids; hunger; satiety; gut peptides; weight maintenance; obesity Protein; endocannabinoids; hunger; satiety; gut peptides; weight maintenance; obesity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tischmann, L.; Drummen, M.; Gatta-Cherifi, B.; Raben, A.; Fogelholm, M.; Hartmann, B.; Holst, J.J.; Matias, I.; Cota, D.; Mensink, R.P.; Joris, P.J.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.; Adam, T.C. Effects of a High-Protein/Moderate-Carbohydrate Diet on Appetite, Gut Peptides, and Endocannabinoids—A Preview Study. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2269. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102269

AMA Style

Tischmann L, Drummen M, Gatta-Cherifi B, Raben A, Fogelholm M, Hartmann B, Holst JJ, Matias I, Cota D, Mensink RP, Joris PJ, Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Adam TC. Effects of a High-Protein/Moderate-Carbohydrate Diet on Appetite, Gut Peptides, and Endocannabinoids—A Preview Study. Nutrients. 2019; 11(10):2269. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102269

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tischmann, Lea, Mathijs Drummen, Blandine Gatta-Cherifi, Anne Raben, Mikael Fogelholm, Bolette Hartmann, Jens J. Holst, Isabelle Matias, Daniela Cota, Ronald P. Mensink, Peter J. Joris, Margriet S. Westerterp-Plantenga, and Tanja C. Adam 2019. "Effects of a High-Protein/Moderate-Carbohydrate Diet on Appetite, Gut Peptides, and Endocannabinoids—A Preview Study" Nutrients 11, no. 10: 2269. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102269

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