The Effect of White Rice and White Bread as Staple Foods on Gut Microbiota and Host Metabolism
Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1323; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091323
Received: 10 August 2018 / Revised: 15 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Intake in Non-communicable Disease Prevention and Treatment)
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of two kinds of major Japanese staple foods, white rice and white bread, on gut microbiota against the background in which participants eat common side dishes. Seven healthy subjects completed the dietary intervention with two 1-week test periods with a 1-week wash-out period in cross-over design (UMIN registration UMIN000023142). White bread or white rice and 21 frozen prepared side dishes were consumed during the test periods. At baseline and at the end of each period, fasting blood samples, breath samples, and fecal samples were collected. For fecal samples, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to analyze the gut microbiota. After the bread period, the abundance of fecal Bifidobacterium genus (19.2 ± 14.5 vs. 6.2 ± 6.6 (%), p = 0.03), fasting glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) (13.6 ± 2.0 vs. 10.5 ± 2.9 (pg/mL), p = 0.03), and breath hydrogen (23.4 ± 9.9 vs. 8.2 ± 5.5 (ppm), p = 0.02) were significantly higher than those of after the rice period. Plasma SCFAs also tended to be higher after the bread period. White bread contains more dietary fiber than refined short grain rice. These findings suggest that indigestible carbohydrate intake from short grain rice as a staple food may be smaller than that of white bread.