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Open AccessArticle

Carbohydrate Knowledge and Expectations of Nutritional Support among Five Ethnic Groups Living in New Zealand with Pre- and Type 2 Diabetes: A Qualitative Study

Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Ltd., Private Bag 11600, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1225;
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 3 September 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 4 September 2018
Despite availability of diabetes and nutrition information for people with pre- and type 2 diabetes, the uptake and understanding of these resources may differ among ethnic groups. Our objective was to explore dietary knowledge and diabetes experiences amongst Māori, European, Pacific Island, Indian and East Asian people living in New Zealand with a focus on carbohydrate-containing foods. A registered diabetes dietitian led ethnic-specific discussions in groups involving 29 people with pre- or type 2 diabetes. Discussions were audio-recorded, fully transcribed and coded independently by two investigators. Themes were developed using deductive and inductive techniques. Five themes emerged: knowledge, concerns, achievements, simplicity and self-determination. Nutritional knowledge was lacking and a greater awareness of trustworthy dietary resources was needed. There were concerns about diabetes complications and appropriate carbohydrate-containing foods and portions. Contrary to this, people felt proud when achieving dietary goals and grateful for support from health care providers and family. Participants were willing to engage in self-care if advice from health professionals was given in plain language, and in a culturally appropriate manner. Given the desire to take an active role in diabetes self-management and willingness to use electronic devices, an ethnic-specific nutrition education resource could be a valuable tool. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetes; ethnicity; knowledge; discussion groups; qualitative diabetes; ethnicity; knowledge; discussion groups; qualitative
MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, Z.; Monro, J.; Venn, B.J. Carbohydrate Knowledge and Expectations of Nutritional Support among Five Ethnic Groups Living in New Zealand with Pre- and Type 2 Diabetes: A Qualitative Study. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1225.

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