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Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 948; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070948

Combination of Aronia, Red Ginseng, Shiitake Mushroom and Nattokinase Potentiated Insulin Secretion and Reduced Insulin Resistance with Improving Gut Microbiome Dysbiosis in Insulin Deficient Type 2 Diabetic Rats

1
Research Division of Food Functionality, Korean Food Research Institutes, Wanjoo 55365, Korea
2
Department of Food and Nutrition, Obesity/Diabetes Center, Hoseo University, Asan 31499, Korea
3
Department of Bioprocess Technology, Bio Campus Korea Polytechnic, Nonsan 32943, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 3 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Type 2 Diabetes)
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Abstract

The combination of freeze-dried aronia, red ginseng, ultraviolet-irradiated shiitake mushroom and nattokinase (AGM; 3.4:4.1:2.4:0.1) was examined to evaluate its effects on insulin resistance, insulin secretion and the gut microbiome in a non-obese type 2 diabetic animal model. Pancreatectomized (Px) rats were provided high fat diets supplemented with either (1) 0.5 g AGM (AGM-L), (2) 1 g AGM (AGM-H), (3) 1 g dextrin (control), or (4) 1 g dextrin with 120 mg metformin (positive-control) per kg body weight for 12 weeks. AGM (1 g) contained 6.22 mg cyanidin-3-galactose, 2.5 mg ginsenoside Rg3 and 244 mg β-glucan. Px rats had decreased bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femur and lean body mass in the hip and leg compared to the normal-control and AGM-L and AGM-H prevented the decrease. Visceral fat mass was lower in the control group than the normal-control group and its decrease was smaller with AGM-L and AGM-H. HOMA-IR was lower in descending order of the control, positive-control, AGM-L, AGM-H and normal-control groups. Glucose tolerance deteriorated in the control group and was improved by AGM-L and AGM-H more than in the positive-control group. Glucose tolerance is associated with insulin resistance and insulin secretion. Insulin tolerance indicated insulin resistance was highly impaired in diabetic rats, but it was improved in the ascending order of the positive-control, AGM-L and AGM-H. Insulin secretion capacity, measured by hyperglycemic clamp, was much lower in the control group than the normal-control group and it was improved in the ascending order of the positive-control, AGM-L and AGM-H. Diabetes modulated the composition of the gut microbiome and AGM prevented the modulation of gut microbiome. In conclusion, AGM improved glucose metabolism by potentiating insulin secretion and reducing insulin resistance in insulin deficient type 2 diabetic rats. The improvement of diabetic status alleviated body composition changes and prevented changes of gut microbiome composition. View Full-Text
Keywords: aronia; ginseng; mushroom; pancreatectomy; type 2 diabetes; gut microbiome; insulin secretion aronia; ginseng; mushroom; pancreatectomy; type 2 diabetes; gut microbiome; insulin secretion
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Yang, H.J.; Kim, M.J.; Kwon, D.Y.; Kim, D.S.; Zhang, T.; Ha, C.; Park, S. Combination of Aronia, Red Ginseng, Shiitake Mushroom and Nattokinase Potentiated Insulin Secretion and Reduced Insulin Resistance with Improving Gut Microbiome Dysbiosis in Insulin Deficient Type 2 Diabetic Rats. Nutrients 2018, 10, 948.

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