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Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 928; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070928

Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Serum Adiponectin Levels in Pregnancy: Results from a Cohort Study in Normal Weight Caucasian Women

1
International Center for the Assessment of Nutritional Status, University of Milan, Via Botticelli 21, 20133 Milano, Italy
2
Department of Clinical and Community Health Sciences, University of Milan, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy
3
Inflammation Society, 18 Woodlands Park, Bexley DA52EL, UK
4
Department of Woman, Mother, and Neonate, Unit of Obstetrics, Buzzi Children’s Hospital, School of Medicine, University of Milan, 20154 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy)
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Abstract

The Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) is significantly associated with anti-inflammatory effects and a favorable health outcome. During pregnancy, both inflammatory changes and oxidative balance are essential for a successful outcome, while an unbalanced inflammatory response can be a key mediator of obstetrical syndromes. The aim of this study is to investigate the adherence to MedDiet during pregnancy in the 1st and in the 3rd trimester, and to test whether the adherence was associated with serum adiponectin levels. The study was carried out on 99 normal weight Caucasian women. The adherence to MedDiet was measured by a 13-point Mediterranean scale. The whole sample scored 7.2 ± 1.5, with no difference between first and third trimester (p = 0.7). Critical points were: fruit < 3 servings/day in 77% of the sample, beans < 3 times/week in 89%, fish < 2 times/week in 69%, and nut weekly intake < 30 g in 75%. The serum adiponectin levels significantly decreased from the first to the third trimester (−16% ± 4%, p = 0.008), which confirms a low-grade inflammatory condition associated with advancing gestational age. The women who were in the highest tertile of the adherence to MedDiet had a lower percentage decrease, as compared with those in the lowest tertile (10% ± 11% vs. −34% ± 3%, p = 0.01). Even if in pregnancy the adiponectin levels are strongly influenced by the low-grade inflammation, the adherence to MedDiet may modulate this state. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mediterranean Diet; pregnancy; low-grade inflammation; adiponectin Mediterranean Diet; pregnancy; low-grade inflammation; adiponectin
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Spadafranca, A.; Piuri, G.; Bulfoni, C.; Liguori, I.; Battezzati, A.; Bertoli, S.; Speciani, A.F.; Ferrazzi, E. Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Serum Adiponectin Levels in Pregnancy: Results from a Cohort Study in Normal Weight Caucasian Women. Nutrients 2018, 10, 928.

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