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Maternal Anemia and Low Birth Weight: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Brasilia, Brasília 70910-900, Distrito Federal, Brazil
Department of Health, Feira de Santana State University, Feira de Santana 44036-900, Bahia, Brazil
Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Brasilia; Brasília 70910-900, Distrito Federal, Brazil
Department of Epidemiology, Federal University of Recôncavo da Bahia, Santo Antônio de Jesus 44.570-000, Bahia, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 601;
Received: 22 January 2018 / Revised: 28 April 2018 / Accepted: 1 May 2018 / Published: 12 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy)
Objective: To systematically analyze the relationship between maternal anemia and low birth weight. Methods: A search of studies was conducted in the main databases (Medline, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, SciELO, and Lilacs), the gray literature, and the reference lists of selected articles. Cohort and case-control studies that met the eligibility criteria were included in the review. There was no limitation on the language or date of publication. Article selection and data extraction were performed by two independent reviewers. Meta-analyses with random effects, subgroup analyses and meta-regressions were performed. Publication bias was measured using Egger regression and visual funnel plot inspection. Results: A total of 7243 articles were found, of which 71 comprised the systematic review and 68 were included in the meta-analyses. Maternal anemia was associated with low birth weight with an adjusted OR: 1.23 (95% CI: 1.06–1.43) and I2: 58%. The meta-regressions confirmed that the sample size and the methodological quality may partially explain the statistical heterogeneity. Conclusions: Maternal anemia was considered a risk factor for low birth weight. View Full-Text
Keywords: anemia; pregnancy; low birth weight; cohort study; systematic review anemia; pregnancy; low birth weight; cohort study; systematic review
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Figueiredo, A.C.M.G.; Gomes-Filho, I.S.; Silva, R.B.; Pereira, P.P.S.; Mata, F.A.F.D.; Lyrio, A.O.; Souza, E.S.; Cruz, S.S.; Pereira, M.G. Maternal Anemia and Low Birth Weight: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2018, 10, 601.

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