Next Article in Journal
Changes of Blood Pressure and Hemodynamic Parameters after Oral Magnesium Supplementation in Patients with Essential Hypertension—An Intervention Study
Next Article in Special Issue
Maternal Anemia and Low Birth Weight: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Previous Article in Journal
Protective Effect of Glucosinolates Hydrolytic Products in Neurodegenerative Diseases (NDDs)
Previous Article in Special Issue
Vitamin D Deficiency Prevalence and Predictors in Early Pregnancy among Arab Women
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 579;

Impact of Dietary Macronutrient Intake during Early and Late Gestation on Offspring Body Composition at Birth, 1, 3, and 5 Years of Age

From the Else Kröner-Fresenius-Center for Nutritional Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, 80992 Munich, Germany
ZIEL–Institute for Food and Health, Nutritional Medicine Unit, Technical University of Munich, 85354 Freising, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 April 2018 / Revised: 3 May 2018 / Accepted: 4 May 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy)
Full-Text   |   PDF [290 KB, uploaded 9 May 2018]


Dietary intake during pregnancy as a possible modifiable risk factor for childhood obesity is poorly explored. In a prospective observational study, two multivariable regression models were therefore used to associate maternal diet at 15 and 32 weeks’ gestation with offsprings’ body composition and fat distribution at birth, 1, 3, and 5 years. Mean energy intake was 2157 ± 375 kcal (n = 186) in early and 2208 ± 460 kcal (n = 167) in late gestation. The partition model showed mostly no significant associations between maternal diet in early pregnancy and offspring body composition. In late pregnancy, higher fat intake was negatively associated with clinical outcomes at birth, 1, and 5 years. Protein intake was negatively associated with BMI z score (zBMI) at 3 and 5 years. A 10 g increase in fiber was associated with an increase of 3.50 mm2 abdominal subcutaneous fat at 1, 172.49 g fat mass at 3, and 0.23 zBMI at 5 years. Results were largely comparable in the substitution model. An incremental increase in fat and protein at the expense of carbohydrates in late but not early pregnancy may be associated with lower fat mass up to 5 years. Findings require confirmation by additional prospective studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: body composition; child adiposity; dietary intake; pregnancy body composition; child adiposity; dietary intake; pregnancy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Brei, C.; Stecher, L.; Meyer, D.M.; Young, V.; Much, D.; Brunner, S.; Hauner, H. Impact of Dietary Macronutrient Intake during Early and Late Gestation on Offspring Body Composition at Birth, 1, 3, and 5 Years of Age. Nutrients 2018, 10, 579.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top