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Open AccessArticle

Impact of Dietary Macronutrient Intake during Early and Late Gestation on Offspring Body Composition at Birth, 1, 3, and 5 Years of Age

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From the Else Kröner-Fresenius-Center for Nutritional Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, 80992 Munich, Germany
2
ZIEL–Institute for Food and Health, Nutritional Medicine Unit, Technical University of Munich, 85354 Freising, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050579
Received: 5 April 2018 / Revised: 3 May 2018 / Accepted: 4 May 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Intakes of Women during Pregnancy)
Dietary intake during pregnancy as a possible modifiable risk factor for childhood obesity is poorly explored. In a prospective observational study, two multivariable regression models were therefore used to associate maternal diet at 15 and 32 weeks’ gestation with offsprings’ body composition and fat distribution at birth, 1, 3, and 5 years. Mean energy intake was 2157 ± 375 kcal (n = 186) in early and 2208 ± 460 kcal (n = 167) in late gestation. The partition model showed mostly no significant associations between maternal diet in early pregnancy and offspring body composition. In late pregnancy, higher fat intake was negatively associated with clinical outcomes at birth, 1, and 5 years. Protein intake was negatively associated with BMI z score (zBMI) at 3 and 5 years. A 10 g increase in fiber was associated with an increase of 3.50 mm2 abdominal subcutaneous fat at 1, 172.49 g fat mass at 3, and 0.23 zBMI at 5 years. Results were largely comparable in the substitution model. An incremental increase in fat and protein at the expense of carbohydrates in late but not early pregnancy may be associated with lower fat mass up to 5 years. Findings require confirmation by additional prospective studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: body composition; child adiposity; dietary intake; pregnancy body composition; child adiposity; dietary intake; pregnancy
MDPI and ACS Style

Brei, C.; Stecher, L.; Meyer, D.M.; Young, V.; Much, D.; Brunner, S.; Hauner, H. Impact of Dietary Macronutrient Intake during Early and Late Gestation on Offspring Body Composition at Birth, 1, 3, and 5 Years of Age. Nutrients 2018, 10, 579.

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