The association between vitamin D deficiency and various adverse pregnancy outcomes has been extensively investigated in recent years. The pregnant woman is the only source of vitamin D for the foetus. The main sources of vitamin D for pregnant women are sunlight, fortified dairy products, oily fish and dietary supplements. Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy has been associated with some adverse neonatal outcomes as well as an increased risk of late pregnancy complications. The outcomes of the published studies investigating preeclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus vary with some large trials suggesting a potential positive effect of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on the decreased risk of these complications. Research also suggests a possible connection between lower vitamin D concentrations and increased risk of preterm labour. In our manuscript, we aim to review the existing literature regarding the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy, the factors associated with vitamin D deficiency, and possible pregnancy complications arising from it.
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