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Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040423

Resistance Training Prevents Muscle Loss Induced by Caloric Restriction in Obese Elderly Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

1
Laboratory of Exercise Physiology—FISEX, Faculty of Physical Education, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, Sao Paulo 13083-851, Brazil
2
Gerontology Program—Faculty of Medical Sciences, UNICAMP, Campinas, Sao Paulo 13083-887, Brazil
3
Laboratory of Aging Biology (LaBE), Department of Biochemistry and Tissue Biology, Institute of Biology, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, Sao Paulo 13083-862, Brazil
4
Graduate Program in Genetics and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biology University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, Sao Paulo 13083-862, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Protein and Muscle in Aging People)
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Abstract

It remains unclear as to what extent resistance training (RT) can attenuate muscle loss during caloric restriction (CR) interventions in humans. The objective here is to address if RT could attenuate muscle loss induced by CR in obese elderly individuals, through summarized effects of previous studies. Databases MEDLINE, Embase and Web of Science were used to perform a systematic search between July and August 2017. Were included in the review randomized clinical trials (RCT) comparing the effects of CR with (CRRT) or without RT on lean body mass (LBM), fat body mass (FBM), and total body mass (BM), measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, on obese elderly individuals. The six RCTs included in the review applied RT three times per week, for 12 to 24 weeks, and most CR interventions followed diets of 55% carbohydrate, 15% protein, and 30% fat. RT reduced 93.5% of CR-induced LBM loss (0.819 kg [0.364 to 1.273]), with similar reduction in FBM and BM, compared with CR. Furthermore, to address muscle quality, the change in strength/LBM ratio tended to be different (p = 0.07) following CRRT (20.9 ± 23.1%) and CR interventions (−7.5 ± 9.9%). Our conclusion is that CRRT is able to prevent almost 100% of CR-induced muscle loss, while resulting in FBM and BM reductions that do not significantly differ from CR. View Full-Text
Keywords: exercise; training; aging; sarcopenia; muscle mass; strength training; caloric restriction; diet exercise; training; aging; sarcopenia; muscle mass; strength training; caloric restriction; diet
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Sardeli, A.V.; Komatsu, T.R.; Mori, M.A.; Gáspari, A.F.; Chacon-Mikahil, M.P.T. Resistance Training Prevents Muscle Loss Induced by Caloric Restriction in Obese Elderly Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2018, 10, 423.

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