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Open AccessArticle

The Acute Effect of Oleic- or Linoleic Acid-Containing Meals on Appetite and Metabolic Markers; A Pilot Study in Overweight or Obese Individuals

1
Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, PO Box 14428, Melbourne, Victoria 8001, Australia
2
The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, 30 Royal Parade, Parkville, Melbourne, VIC 3052, Australia
3
Australian Institute for Musculoskeletal Science (AIMSS), College of Health and Biomedicine, Victoria University, Melbourne, Victoria 8001, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Present Address: Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of North Carolina, 315 Woollen, CB #8605, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1376; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101376
Received: 23 August 2018 / Revised: 20 September 2018 / Accepted: 21 September 2018 / Published: 26 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Appetite, Metabolism and Obesity)
Despite the abundance of plant-derived fats in our diet, their effects on appetite, and metabolic markers, remain unclear. This single-blinded 3-way cross-over pilot study aimed to investigate the ability of the two most abundant dietary plant-derived fats, oleic (OA) and linoleic (LA) acids, to modulate postprandial appetite and levels of circulating appetite and metabolic regulators in overweight/obese individuals. Meals were a high-carbohydrate control, a high-OA or a high-LA meal, and provided 30% of participants’ estimated energy requirements. Meals were consumed after an overnight fast, with blood samples collected over 3¼ h. Appetite parameters were assessed via a validated visual analogue scale questionnaire. Hormones and other circulating factors were quantified using multiplex immunoassays. Eight participants (age 45.8 ± 3.6 (years), body mass index 32.0 ± 1.3 (kg/m2)) completed the study. All meals significantly increased fullness and reduced desire to eat. The control and high-OA meals significantly decreased prospective food intake. The high-LA meal increased ghrelin levels (p < 0.05), a hormone which encourages food intake. This was coupled with a significant acute increase in resistin levels, which impairs insulin signaling. Taken together, this study indicates that in overweight/obese individuals, high-LA meals may promote excess energy intake and alter glucose handling, though a larger cohort may be required to strengthen results. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary fats; appetite regulation; ghrelin; satiety; oleic acid; linoleic acid dietary fats; appetite regulation; ghrelin; satiety; oleic acid; linoleic acid
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Naughton, S.S.; Hanson, E.D.; Mathai, M.L.; McAinch, A.J. The Acute Effect of Oleic- or Linoleic Acid-Containing Meals on Appetite and Metabolic Markers; A Pilot Study in Overweight or Obese Individuals. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1376.

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